gioa Vw;ghL - njhlf;fE}y;

vOjpath; - mUs;jpU Kidth; m.gPl;lh; mgPh;

 

nghUslf;fk;:

1. Kd;Diu
2. gilg;gpd; gpd;dzp
3. thu;j;ij gilj;jJ
4. gilg;gpd; rpfuk;
5. flTs; Xa;T vLj;jhuh?
6. gilg;gpd; FLk;gk;
7. gilg;gpd; tPo;r;rp
8. rNfhjug; gif
9. ghtj;jpd; tsu;r;rp
10. ey;ytd; tho;thd;
11. rKjhag; ghtk;
12. FyKJtu; tuyhW

 

1. Kd;Diu

jpUtptpypaj;jpd; Kjy; E}y; njhlf;fE}y;. ,e;E}ypd; Kjw; gjpndhU mjpfhuq;fs; flTspd; gilg;G> kdpjdpd; tPo;r;rp> ghtj;jpd; ngUf;fk; gw;wp Xu; ,yf;fpa eaj;Jld; tpsf;FfpwJ.

,e;jg; gilg;G tuyhW (njhE} 1-11) njhlf;fE}ypYs;s kw;w gFjpahd FyKJtu;fspd; tuyhw;Wf;F (njhE} 12-50) kl;Lky;y Ie;E}Yf;F Kd;DiuahfTk; tUfpwJ. ~flTs; jkJ typa fuj;jhYk;> Xq;fpa Gaj;jhYk; kpf gaq;fuj;Jf;Fupa milahs> mw;Gjq;fisf; fhl;b ek;ik vfpg;jpypUe;J Gwg;glr; nra;jhu;| (,r 26 : 7) vd;W flTs; gw;wp ,];uNayu; ek;gpdu;. mg;gbg;gl;l nrayhw;Wk; flTNs gilf;Fk; flTs; vd;w ek;gpf;if czu;it Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mjd; ntspg;ghl;bidj;jhd; ehk; njhE} 1-11y; fhz;fpNwhk;. ed;whfg; gilf;fg;gl;l kdpjd; Vd; Jd;GWfpwhd;? Neha; Nehf;fhL vjdhy; tUfpwJ? grp tUj;jk;> gifAzu;T tuf; fhuzk; vd;d? ,g;gbg;gl;l mbg;gilf; Nfs;tpfSf;F ,iwek;gpf;if mbg;gilapy; njhlf;fE}y; Mrpupau; gjpy; fhz;fpd;whu;. mjd; tpisTjhd; njhE} 1-11.

2. gilg;gpd; gpd;dzp

2.1. kPl;Ng Mjhuk;
njhlf;fE}ypy; Kjy; gjpndhU mjpfhuq;fisg; gbf;Fk;NghJ kdpjdpd; Njhw;wj;ijg; gw;wp ,];uNay; kf;fs; Muk;gk; KjNy vOjp itj;Js;sdu; vd;W epidf;fj; Njhd;Wk;. Mdhy; mtu;fs; gilg;igg;gw;wp epidf;f vOe;j fhuzq;fs; NtW rpy ,Ue;jd.

,];uNay; kf;fspd; ek;gpf;if mwpf;ifapidg; gioa Vw;ghl;bNy gy ,lq;fspy; fhz;fpNwhk; (,r 26 : 5-24; NahR 24 : 1-13). ahNt mtu;fis kPl;lhu; vd;gJjhd; ,tw;wpd; ikag;nghUs;. vjpupfsplkpUe;J ahNt mspj;j kPl;gpNy ,aw;ifr; rf;jpfs; kPJ mtu; nfhz;bUe;j Mw;wiyf; fz;Lzu;e;jhu;fs;. ,j;jifa flTs;jhd; ,t;TyifAk; gilj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifNa vOe;jJ.

flTspd; gilg;ghw;wypNy ,];uNay; kf;fSf;F ,Ue;j ek;gpf;if vrh 40:28-31; 7:12 Nghd;w trdq;fspYk;> "cd;djkhdtu; ntt;NtW ,dq;fSf;F kf;fs; ,dq;fspd; vy;iyfisAk; jpl;lkpl;lhu;' vd;Wk; (,r 32 : 8)> "Mz;ltNu> tpz;> kz;> fly; ahtw;iwAk; mtw;wpy; mlq;fpa ahtw;iwAk; Mf;fpNahu; ePNu' vd;Wk; Gfo;e;jdu; (jpgh 14:15> 17:24). ,t;thW midj;ijAk; gilj;jtu; mtNu (jpnt 4 : 11) vd;w ek;gpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy;jhd; njhlf;fE}y; gilg;Gg; gFjpfs; vOjg;gl;ld.

vOjg;gl;lf; fhyk;:
2 : 46-4 : 11 Mfpa gFjpfs; fp.K. 10 Mk; E}w;whz;L. 1 : 2-4m> 5 : 10 Mfpa gFjpfs; fp.K. 6 Mk; E}w;whz;L. mg;gbNa gilg;G gw;wp vOJk;NghJ $l kPl;igj;jhd; ikaf; fUj;jhf tptpypa Mrpupau; nfhz;bUe;jhu;. ,UspypUe;J xspia ntt;Ntwhfg; gpupj;jhu; (njhE} 1 : 4) vd;Wk; gfiyAk; ,UisAk; ntt;Ntwhfg; gpupf;f thd;ntspapy; xspg;gpsk;Gfis cz;lhf;fpdhu; (1 : 14) vd;Wk; Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; fhzg;gLfpw Fwpg;Gfs; flTspd; kPl;Gr; nray;fis ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

2.2. kdpj tho;tpd; gpujpgypg;G
tptpypaj;jpy; ,g;gFjpapy; ehk; fhZk; gilg;G> kdpjdpd; ghtk;> nts;sg;ngUf;F Nghd;w nra;jpfs; gpw rkag; Guhz ,yf;fpaq;fspYk; cs;sd. Mjypd; tptpypag; gFjpf;Fk; Guhzj;jpw;Fk; VjhtJ njhlu;G cz;lh vd;W fhz;Nghk;.

kpj;Njh]; (Mythos) vd;w fpNuf;fr; nrhy;ypidj; jkpopy; Guhzf; fij> ntw;Wg; Gide;Jiu vd;W nkhopngau;f;fyhk;. flTs;fis fjhg;ghj;jpuq;fshff; nfhz;L kdpjDila Vf;fq;fisAk; Mty;fisAk; fijfshf tbj;jdu;. tptpypa MrpupaUk; jd; fhyj;jpy; epytpa ,j;jifa Guhz ,yf;fpa tifapidg; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu;. ,Jgw;wpa tpupthd tpsf;fj;ij cq;fSf;F Kd;dNk mDg;gg;gl;l ~gioa Vw;ghL nghJ Kd;Diu| vd;w E}ypy; gf;. 26-34 Kba fhz;f.

kdpjd; jdJ tpUg;G> ntWg;Gfis> kj czu;Tfis KOikahf epiwT nra;a Kbtjpy;iy. mtw;iw ,t;Tyfpy; fhzhJ kWTyfpy; fhz;fpwhd;. mjw;F flTsu;fisf; fjhghj;jpuq;fshf mikf;fpd;whd;. Mjypd;> cyfpy; vOe;j ,j;jifa Guhzf; fijfspy; kdpjdpd; Vf;fq;fSk; Mty;fSk; gpujpgypf;fpd;wd.

,];uNay; kf;fs; xNu flTs; nfhs;ifAilatu;fs;. xU rpy cz;ikfis> ,iwntspg;ghl;il cyFf;F ntspg;gLj;j ,j;jifa fij cj;jpfisf; ifahz;ldu;. kPl;gpd; flTs; vg;gb gilf;Fk; Mw;wy; nfhz;L ,t;Tyifg; gilj;jhu; vd;W gilg;Gg; gw;wp nkrgnjhkpahtpy; ~vdpkh vyp\;| vd;w Guhzj;ij xl;b njhlf;f E}y; KjypU mjpfhuq;fis tptpypa Mrpupau; vOjpdhu;.

mNj Nghd;W njhE} 6Mk; mjpfhuj;jpy; tUk; nts;sg;ngUf;F ghgpNyhdpa ~fpy;fNk\;| vd;w Guhzj;ij xj;jpUg;gjhfj; Njhd;WfpwJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> tptpypak; Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l Guhzq;fspypUe;J Kf;fpakhd nfhs;iffspy; khWgLfpwJ. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf>

- xNu flTs; ek;gpf;ifia typAWj;JfpwJ.
- ~ahNt| flTNs midj;ijAk; gilj;jhu;.
- mtu; gilj;jJ ahTk; ey;yitNa!
- kdpjdpd; jtwpdhy;jhd; ghtk;> jPik cyfpy; cUthdJ> ngUfpaJ.
- ghtk; ngUfg; ngUf kdpjdpd; tho;ehs; FWfpaJ.

2.3. kuGfs; gy
nghJthf tptpypaj;jpy; Kjy; Ie;J E}y;fspy; ehd;F tpjkhd kuGfisf; fhz;fpNwhk;. njhlf;f E}iy kl;Lk; vLj;Jf;nfhz;lhy; ,];uNaypd; %d;W kuGfs; gpd;dpg; gpize;Js;sij ehk; njspthff; fhzyhk;. mit: flTis ~ahNt| vd;wiof;fpd;w ahNt kuGk;> mtiu ~VNyhfpk;| vd;wiof;fpd;w VNyhfpk; kuGk;> FUf;fs; kuGk; MFk;.

fhyk;:
ahNt kuG fp.K. 10 Mk; E}w;whz;L
VNyhfpk; kuG fp.K. 8 Mk; E}w;whz;L
FUf;fs; kuG fp.K. 6 Mk; E}w;whz;L

kdpjd; flTNshL Ngr KbAnkd;w ek;gpf;ifia ahNt kuG ntspg;gLj;Jk;NghJ (njhE} 2 : 46-15; 18 : 2; 4 : 3-16; 11 : 1-9) flTs; midj;jpw;Fk;> midtUf;Fk; mg;ghw;gl;ltu; vd;w vz;zj;ijg; gpw;ghL vOe;j FUf;fs; kuG typAWj;JfpwJ (njhE} 1 : 1 - 2 : 4 m).

,e;j kuGfspd; fz;Nzhl;lk; NtWgLtjdhy;jhd; gilg;Gg; gw;wp Kjyjpfhuj;jpy; xUtpjkhfTk; ,uz;lhk; mjpfhuj;jpy; NtW tpjkhfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wd.

gioa Vw;ghL nghJ Kd;Diuapy; tpsf;fk; fhz;f. ,j;jifa gpd;dzpapy; tptpypaj;jpy; gilg;Gg; gw;wp Muha;Nthk;.

 

3. thu;j;ij gilj;jJ

njhlf;f E}y; gilg;G gw;wpa Kjy; ghfj;ij ehk; njhE} 1 : 1-2 : 4m Kba fhz;fpNwhk;.

,];uNay; kf;fs; ehLflj;jg;gl;l gpwF FUf;fs; kuG Mrpupau; ,g;gFjpia vOjpdhu;. cyfk; vg;gb cUthdJ vd;w Nfs;tpf;F tpilfhz tpiotJjhd; ,t;thrpupaupd; Kjd;ikahd Nehf;fk;.

,q;Nf> ~njhlf;fj;jpy; flTs; tpz;ZyifAk; kz;ZyifAk; gilj;jhu;| (1 : 1) vd;gjpypUe;J> MW ehl;fs; gilj;j flTs;> Vohk; ehs; Xa;e;jpUe;jhu; (2 : 3) vd;gJ tiu $wp> ,itahTk; cyfg; gilg;gpd; njhlf;f fhy epfo;r;rpfs; MFk; vd;W Kbf;fpwhu; ( 2 : 4m).

3.1. ,yf;fpa mikg;G
FUf;fs; kugpy; vOe;j ,g;gFjpahdJ> xU fl;Lf;Nfhg;ghd ,yf;fpa mikg;gpy; kpspu;fpd;wJ vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

1) fl;lisapl;lhu; - cUthdJ
"njhlf;fj;jpy; flTs; tpz;ZyifAk; kz;ZyifAk; gilj;jhu;' (1 : 1) vd;w Muk;g trdj;ijAk;>
",itNa tpz;Zyf> kz;Zyfg; gilg;gpd; Njhw;w Kiwikahk;' (2 : 4m) vd;w ,g;gFjpapd; ,Wjp trdj;ijAk; fhZk;NghJ> xU Kd;Diu> KbTiuahf ,g;gFjpf;F mikfpd;wd.

,ilapy;> ~Njhd;Wf| vd;w fl;lisiaf; flTs; tpLf;fpwhu;. njhlu;e;J ~Njhd;wpw;W| vd;w tpisitAk; ~ey;yJ vdf; fz;lhu;| vd;w flTspd; vz;zj;ijAk; vOJfpwhu;.

Mjypd;

Kd;Diu : flTs; nrhd;dhu;
fl;lis : Njhd;Wf
tpisT : Njhd;wpw;W
vz;zk; : ey;yJ vdf; fz;lhu;
KbTiu : khiyAk; fhiyAk; Nru;e;J...

vd;w mikg;gpy; xt;nthU ehSk; flTs; gilj;jjhf Mrpupau; vOjp> mfg;gLj;Jjy; vd;w ,yf;fpa Kiwia ,tz; ifahSfpwhu;. ,g;gbg;gl;l mikg;gpy; gilg;Gg; gw;wp vOJk; FUf;fs; kuG Mrpupaupd; ikaf;fUj;J vd;d? flTs; xU thu;j;ij nrhy;y mJ mg;gbNa epfo;e;jJ vd;gij typAWj;jNt tpUk;Gfpwhu;. tpUj;jNrjdk; gw;wpa flTspd; fl;lisia FyKJtu;fs; clDf;Fld; epiwNtw;wpa jd;ikia xj;jpUf;fpd;wJ ,J (njhE} 17 : 10> 23-27).

2) vq;Fk; KOik
FUf;fs; kuG Mrpupau;> flTs; gilg;gpy; xU KOikiaf; fhz;fpwhu;. mjdhy;> me;j KOikiaf; Fwpf;Fk; VO vd;w vz;Zf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspf;fpwhu;. ~gilj;jhu;| vd;w nghUisf; Fwpf;Fk; vgpNuar; nrhy; ~ghuh| (Bara) ,g;gFjpapy; VOKiw tUfpwJ. mLj;J "Mapw;W' vd;w nrhy;Yk; VOKiw tUfpwJ (1 : 6> 9> 11> 15> 20> 24> 30). NkYk; "ey;yJ vd;W fz;lhu;' vd;gJ VOKiw tUfpwJ. mNj Nghd;W MW ehl;fs; gilj;J> Vohk; ehs; flTs; Xa;e;jpUe;jhu; vd;W $wp> VO ehs; Kiwiaf; flTSk; ifahz;lhu; vd;W cUtfkhf vOJfpwhu;.

NkYk; gzpfs; gw;wp vOJk;NghJk; ehd;F tpj> VO gzpfis FUf;fs; kuG Mrpupau; vOJfpwhu;.
1. gpupg;gjpy; ,U gzpfs; (tr 6-8; 9-10)
2. mzp nra;tjpy; ,U gzpfs; (tr 11-13; 14-19)
3. capu; nfhLg;gjpy; ,U gzpfs; (tr 20-23; 24-28)
4. xOq;F nra;Ak; gzp (tr 28m-30).

,g;gb> jhd; vOJfpd;w ghzpapy; VO vd;w vz;Zf;F kpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspg;gijf; fhz;fpNwhk;. A+jf; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; VO vd;gJ KOikiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ. flTs; gilg;gpy; vq;Fk; vjpYk; KOik ,Ue;jnjd;W typAWj;jpf; fhl;lNt tptpypa Mrpupau; ,t;thW vOJfpwhu;.

3.2. xd;Wkpy;yhikapy; gilj;jhu;
njhlf;f E}ypd; Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; ~gilj;jhu;| vd;w nghUisf; Fwpf;Fk; ~ghuh| vd;w vgpNuar; nrhy;iy tptpypa Mrpupau; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu;. ve;jtpj ciog;Gk; ,y;yhky; ve;jg; nghUs; Mjhuj;ijAk; nfhz;bUf;fhky; flTs; cyifg; gilj;jhu; vd;gijj;jhd; ,J czu;j;JfpwJ. ,];uNayu;fspd; mz;il ehl;ltuhd nkrgnjhkpaupd; ~vdpkh vyp\;| vd;w Guhzk; flTs; gilg;G gw;wpf; $Wk;NghJ> khu;Jf; vd;w nja;tj;Jf;F vjpuhf xU Fog;gkhd R+o;epiy Vw;nfdNt epytpaJ. mJ cUtkw;wnjhU Nfhukhd nghUs;. mr;R+o;epiyiag; gad;gLj;jpj;jhd; mj;nja;tk; cyifg; gilf;fpwJ. NkYk; jdJ vjpupahd Njtij jpahkj;ijf; nfhd;W kdpjidg; gilf;fpwJ. ,g;gbg;gl;l fUj;Jf;F Kw;wpYk; khwhf> ~xU thu;j;ij nrhy;y midj;Jk; cz;lhapd| vd;w fUj;jpy;> ve;jg; nghUSk; nfhs;shky;> xd;Wkpy;yhikapy; midj;ijAk; cUthf;fpdhu; vd;W $wp> ,];uNayu; topgLk; flTs; khngUk; Mw;wy; gilj;jtu; vd;W ntspg;gLj;j tpUk;Gfpwhu;.

3.3. flTspd; mstpyh Mw;wy;
"NkhNr jk; ifiaf; fly;Nky; ePl;lNt Mz;ltu; fPiof; fhw;iw ,uT KOtJk; td;ikahf tPrr; nra;J fliy gpd;thq;f itj;J cyu;e;j jiuahf;fpdhu;. ePu;j;jpus; gpupf;fg;gl;lJ' (tpg 14 : 21) vd;W Muk;gpj;J flTspd; gytpj Mw;wy;kpF nray;fis tptupf;fpwhu; tpLjiyg; gaz E}y; Mrpupau;.

mNj Mw;wYs;s flTNs midj;ijAk; gilj;jhu; vd;W $Wk; njhlf;fE}y; Mrpupau; mtuJ Mw;wiy tpsf;f xU rpy Kiwfspy; vOJfpwhu;.

1) "mg;NghJ flTs;> ~xsp Njhd;Wf| vd;W ciuj;jhu;> ciuf;fNt xsp Njhd;wpw;W' (njhE} 1 : 3). flTs; xU thu;j;ij nrhy;y midj;Jk; cz;lhapd vd;w fUj;jpy; vOJfpwhu;. ,f;fUj;jhdJ tptpypak; KOtJk; gutpapUg;gijAk; fhz;fpNwhk;. (v.fh) "gdpf;fl;biaj; Jfs;fshf tpor; nra;fpd;whu;. mtu;jk; fl;lisahy; mtw;iw cUfr; nra;fpd;whu;. jk; fhw;iw tPrr; nra;a ePu; Xlj; njhlq;Ffpd;wJ'. vd;W jpUg;ghlYk; (147 : 17-18) ".... ck; thu;j;ijahy; midj;ijAk; gilj;jtu; ePNu...' vd;W rhyNkhdpd; QhdKk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd (9 : 2).

,jdhy;> gilg;Gg;nghUs; NtW> gilj;jtu; NtW vd;gJk;> flTs; midj;ijAk; jdJ tpUg;gj;jpdhy; gilj;jhu; vd;gJk; njspthfpwJ.

1) ngaupl;lhu;
~flTs; xspf;Fg; gfy; vd;Wk;> ,USf;F ,uT vd;Wk; ngaupl;lhu;| vd;W njhE} Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; mwpfpd;Nwhk;. vJTNk ngaupy;yhky; capu; tho;tjpy;iy. midj;Jk; tho;tjw;Ff; flTNs fhuznkd;gjhy; midj;ijAk; flTNs ngaupl;L miog;gjhf vrhah mwptpf;fpwhu; (40 : 26). Mjyhy; ngau; ,Ue;jhy;jhd; capu; ,Uf;fpwJ. mjdhy;jhd; rTy; jdJ filrp fhyj;jpy; jhtPij Nehf;fp> "vdf;Fg; gpd;tUk; vd; topkuig eP NtuWg;gjpy;iy vd;Wk; vd; je;ij tPl;lhupypUe;J vd; ngaiu mopf;fkhl;lha; vd;Wk; Mz;ltu; Nky; vdf;F Mizapl;Lf;$W' (1 rhK 24 : 2) vd;W cWjpnkhop thq;fpdhd;.

ngaUk; Ms; jd;ikAk; ,ize;Nj nry;tjhf A+ju; fUjpdu;. mjdhy;jhd;> jdf;Fupa MrPiu ahf;NfhG fglkhfg; ngw;Wtpl;lhd; vd;W mwpe;j Vrh: "ahf;NfhG vd;Dk; ngau; mtDf;Fg; nghUj;jNk> Vndd;why;> mtd; ,UKiw vd;id Vkhw;wptpl;lhd;' vd;W $wpdhd; (njhE} 27 : 36). Mdhy; mjd; gpwF flTspd; J}ju; mtiur; re;jpj;jNghJ> "cd; ngau; ,dp ahf;NfhG ,y;iy. ,];uNay; vdg;gLk;' (njhE} 32:28) vd;whu;.

,q;Nf ahf;Nfhgpd; ngau; khw;wj;jpy; mtUila jd;ikAk; gzpAk; khWgLfpd;wd. mNjg;Nghd;W flTs; gilg;Gr; R+oypy; ngaupLk;NghJ> jdJ mjpfhuj;ij epiyehl;Lfpwhu; vd;gJ GydhfpwJ. NkYk; midj;jpw;Fk; flTNs ngaupLtjhy;> midj;Jk; ey;yitfshfNt gilf;fg;gl;ld vd;w nghUisAk; ,q;Nf ehk; mwpa KbfpwJ.

 

4. gilg;gpd; rpfuk;

njhlf;fE}ypd; Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; gilg;igf; fhZk;NghJ> gy tifahd capupdq;fisAk;> tPl;L tpyq;FfisAk; G+kpapd; kPJ flTs; gilj;jgpd;> ,Wjpapy; kdpjidg; gilj;jhu;.

kdpjd; thoj; jFjpahapUf;Fk; tz;zk; thdk;> G+kp> mjpYs;s midj;ijAk; cUthf;fpa gpd;du;> flTs; kdpjidg; gilg;gpd; rpfukhfg; gilf;fpwhu;. kw;w gilg;Gf;Fk; kdpjDf;Fk; ngupanjhU tpj;jpahrj;ijf; flTs; Vw;gLj;jp> kdpjDf;Fj; jdpj;jd;ikia mspj;jhu; vd;gijg; gpd;tUk; Fwpg;GfspypUe;J ehk; mwpayhk;.

4.1. rhayhfTk;> cUtpYk;
flTs;> "khdpliu ek; cUtpYk; ek; rhaypYk; cz;lhf;FNthk;' vd;W $Wfpwhu; (njhE} 1 : 26). "rhay;' vd;w thu;j;ij "\yhkh' (Salama) vd;w vgpNua %yj;jpypUe;J tUfpwJ. mf;fhba nkhopapy; (Akkadian) "\hy;K' vd;W tUfpwJ. ,jw;F rpiy> cUtk;> rhay;> gpujp vd;nwy;yhk; nghUs; cz;L. mg;gbnad;why; kdpjd; flTspd; gpujp vd;Nwh my;yJ cUtk; vd;Nwh $w KbAkh? KbahJ.

gioa Vw;ghl;L Mrpupau; ,t;thu;j;ijia vj;jifa nghUspy; ifahs;fpwhu;?

,ijg; Gupe;Jnfhs;s ~ghtid| vd;w nrhy;ypd; gaid Muha;e;jhy; njspT gpwf;Fk;. ~ghtd;| vd;w nrhy; jhkh (Damah) vd;w vgpNua %yj;jpd; nkhopngau;g;G. ,jw;F> "Nghd;wJ> xj;jpUg;gJ> gz;nghj;jJ> cUnthj;jJ' vd;W nghUs;. vrh 1 : 9; 46 : 5; jpgh 89; 102 : 7; 144 : 4 Nghd;w ,lq;fspy; ,t;thu;j;ij Nkw;fz;l nghUspy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. flTs; rk;ke;jg;gl;l epiytUk;NghJ> cUtq;fshy; tpsf;Fk; tof;fj;ij ,];uNayu; nfhz;bUe;jdu; vd;gij vNrf;fpNay; E}y; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ (v.fh.) "capupdq;fspd; jiyfSf;FNky; ftpif Nghd;w mikg;G xd;W ,Ue;jJ. mJ gspq;F Nghd;w Njhw;wk; nfhz;L mr;rk; jUtjha; mtw;wpd; jiyfSf;FNky; tpupe;jpUe;jJ' (vNr 1 : 22). ,Wjpahf> njhlf;fE}y; 1 : 26y; ghtid vd;W $Wk;NghJ> kdpjidf; Fwpj;Nj mJTk; flTSld; njhlu;Gila mtdJ epiyia tpsf;FtjhfNt tUfpwJ.

NkYk;> ,g;gFjpapy; rhaiyAk;> ghtidiaAk; ,izj;Nj $Wtjd; fhuzk; vd;dntd;why;> "rhay;' vd;w thu;j;ijapd; nghUis mg;gbNa vLj;Jf;nfhs;shky; mjd; cl;nghUis thrfu;fs; czu Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhfNt "ghtid' vd;w thu;j;ijiar; Nru;j;jpUf;fpwhu;. nghJthf "rhay;' vd;gJ cly; epiyAk;> mikg;Gk; xj;jpUg;gijf; Fwpf;Fk;. Mdhy; kdpjdpd; cly; epiyAk;> mikg;Gk; flTspd; rhaYf;F xj;jpUg;gjhf ahuhYk; fUj ,ayhJ. Mdhy; mNj Neuj;jpy;> flTspd; rhayhf kdpjd; ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;W $Wk;NghJ mtdJ cs;sj;J epiyia kl;Lk; tptpypa Mrpupau; fUj;jpy; nfhz;lhu; vd;Wk; nfhs;s KbahJ.

Vnddpy;> kdpjid cly; vd;Wk; nka;g;nghUs; vd;Wk; ghFgLj;jpf; fhz;gJ gioa Vw;ghl;Lg; ghuk;gupak; my;y. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> "Mz;ltuhfpa ,iwtd; $Wfpwhu;> eP flTs; rhaypd; Kj;jpiuaha; ,Ue;jha;; Qhdj;jpy; epiwe;jpUe;jha;; mofpy; rpwe;jpUe;jha;... nghd;dhd cd; cUghtid cd; moif ntspf;fhl;bw;W' vd;w vNrf;fpNay; E}y; trdkhdJ kdpj clypd; Nkd;ik> moF gw;wp gioa Vw;ghL fUJtij tpsf;FfpwJ. "mtu;fisf; flTshfpa ckf;Fr; rw;Nw rpwpatu; Mf;fpAs;sPu;' vd;W jpUg;ghly; $Wk;NghJ (8 : 5) kdpjid KOikahfNt fz;lhu;. MfNt> "flTspd; rhay;' vd;W nrhy;Yk;NghJ flTs; jdJ cUtj;jpd; gpujpgpk;gkhf kdpjid cUthf;ftpy;iynad;W njspthfpwJ.

flTs; capuhw;wy; nfhz;L nray;gLfpwhu;. mNjNghd;W kdpjDk; capuhw;wy; nfhz;L nray;gLk; jd;ikia kdpjDf;F mspf;fpwhu;. flTs; jdJ Qhdj;jpYk; ed;ikj;jdj;jpYk; gq;fspj;J> capuhw;wy; nfhz;L nray;gLk; jdJ jd;ikiag; gfpu;e;jspf;fpwhu;. ,g;gbg;gl;l Mw;wYld;> kdpjd; nray;gLk;NghJjhd; mtd; flTspd; rhaypYk;> cUtpYk;> ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;gJ njspthfpwJ.

4.2. fPo;g;gLj;Jq;fs;
capupdq;fisg; gilj;j flTs;> "mtw;wpw;F Mrp toq;fp> gYfpg; ngUfpf; fly; ePiu epug;Gq;fs;' vd;whu; (1 : 22). mijg; Nghd;wNjhu; Mrpiu kdpjDf;Fk; toq;Ffpwhu;. flTs; mtu;fSf;F (Kjy; kdpju;) Mrp toq;fp> ~gYfpg; ngUfp kz;Zyif epug;Gq;fs;| (1 : 28). Mdhy; ,j;Jld; flTs; epw;ftpy;iy. ~gYfpg; ngUfp kz;Zyif epug;Gq;fs;; mij cq;fs; Mw;wYf;F cl;gLj;Jq;fs;| (fPo;gLj;Jq;fs;) midj;ijAk; MSq;fs;' vd;w mjpfhuj;ijAk; mspj;J kdpjdpd; jdpj;jd;ikia epiyehl;Lfpwhu; (1 : 28).

flTs; Mgpuhik Mrpu;tjpf;Fk; NghJ> "MgpufhkplkpUe;Nj typikkpf;f khngUk; ,dk; Njhd;Wk;. mtd; %yk; kz;Zyfpd; vy;yh ,dj;jhUk; Mrp ngw;Wf;nfhs;tu;' (njhE} 18 : 18) vd;whu;. mijNghd;W <rhf;if Kd;dpl;L Mgpufhkplk; flTs; $Wk;NghJ> "mtDf;F Mrp toq;fp mtid kpfg; ngUkstpy; gYfr; nra;Ntd;. gd;dpU ,sturu;fSf;F mtd; je;ijahthd;' vd;W $Wfpwhu; (njhE} 17:20). <rhf;F ahf;Nfhg;ig MrPu;tjpf;Fk;NghJ ,j;jifanjhU fdptsj;ijNa Fwpf;fpwhu;. mLj;J ahf;NfhG NahNrg;gpd; kf;fis Mrpu;tjpf;Fk;NghJ> "kz;Zyfpy; ,tu;fs; ngUe;jpushfg; gy;Fthu;fshf' vd;whu; (njhE} 18:16). ,q;Nf kf;fs; nry;tk; Fwpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

RUq;ff;$wpd;> ~gYfpg; ngUFq;fs;| vd;W $Wk;NghJ tptpypa Mrpupaupd; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; kf;fs; nry;tk; kl;Lky;yhky;> nghJthf cyfr; nry;tk; gYfpg; ngUFtijj;jhd; czu;j;JfpwJ. Mdhy;> flTs; mj;Jld; epw;ftpy;iy. "gYfpg; ngUfp kz;Zyif epug;Gq;fs;; mij cq;fs; Mw;wYf;F cl;gLj;Jq;fs;' vd;w fl;lisia tpLf;fpwhu; (1 : 28).

4.3. ,jd; nghUs; vd;d?
FUf;fs; ghuk;gupa Mrpupau; flTis ~vNyhfpk;| vd;W miof;fpwhu;. ~vNyhfpk;| vd;w thu;j;ij ,U cz;ikfis czu;j;JfpwJ. xd;W Qhdk;> kw;nwhd;W ey;ytu; vd;w jd;ik. mjhtJ capUs;s flTs; Qhdk; epiwe;jtu;; ey;ytu; vd;w vz;zk; gioa Vw;ghl;L kf;fspilNa Mog;gjpe;jpUe;jJ (2 rhK 14 : 20; 1 rhK 29 : 9). kdpjd; flTspd; rhay; vd;why;> flTs; jdJ Qhdj;jpYk;> ed;ikj;jdj;jpYk; gq;fspf;fpwhu; vd;gJjhd; nghUs;. mjdhy; jhd;> jhd; gilj;jtw;iwf; fhZk;NghJ ~ey;ynjdf; fz;lhu;| vd;W $wp tpl;L (1 : 11> 13> 18> 22) gilg;gpd; rpfukhd kdpjidg; gilj;jNghJ> "mit kpfTk; ed;wha; ,Ue;jd' vd;W $Wfpwhu; (njhE} 1 : 31).

mjhtJ> kw;w gilg;GfspypUe;J kdpjid Kw;wpYk; tpj;jpahrkhfg; gilj;j flTs;> kw;w gilg;Gfis kdpjd; fPo;g;gLj;Jtjw;fhd jFjpfis flTNs mspf;fpwhu; (Qhdk;> ed;ikj;jdk;).

,ijf; fUj;jpy;nfhz;Ljhd; jpUg;ghly; Mrpupau;> "ckJ if gilj;jtw;iw mtu;fs; MSk;gb nra;Js;sPu;. vy;yhtw;iwAk; mtu;fs; ghjq;fSf;F fPo;g;gLj;jpAs;sPu;' vd;W ghLfpwhu; (8 : 6). kw;w gilg;Gfisf; fPo;g;gLj;jp> Mz;L elj;Jk;NghJ flTsJ gzpia kdpjd; gfpu;e;Jnfhs;fpwhd;. ,t;thW flTsJ gzpapy; kdpjd; gfpu;e;J nfhs;Sk;NghJ flTSf;Fk; kdpjDf;Fk; xU neUq;fpa cwT Vw;gLfpwJ. cld;gbf;if cUthfpwJ. mjhtJ> kdpjd; ,q;Nf fPo;g;gLj;jp tho;tjdhy; jdf;Nf tho;tspj;j ,iwtDld; neUq;fpa cwit cUthf;Ffpwhd;. ~cl;gLj;jp| Ms;tnjd;gJ flTSila jpl;lj;jpy; kdpjd; jd;id ,izj;Jf;nfhz;L> cyfg; gilg;gpid kdpj tho;tpd; Nkk;ghl;bw;Fk;> cyfk; vg;nghOJk; "ey;yjha;' ,Uf;fTk; gy tsu;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fisr; nrayhf;FtJ MFk;.

RUq;fr; nrhy;y Ntz;Lkhapd;> kdpjd; tho;tjw;F Vw;wjhf ,t;Tyfj;ij mikj;Jf;nfhs;s flTs; mtid MrPu;tjpj;jhu;.

 

5. flTs; Xa;T vLj;jhuh?

"flTs; jhk; nra;j gilg;G Ntiyfs; midj;ijAk; epiwT ngwr; nra;J me;ehspy;jhd; Xa;e;jpUe;jhu; (Vohk; ehs;)' vd;W tptpypa Mrpupau; vOJfpwhu;.

flTs; Xa;e;jpUf;f KbAkh?

Vohk; ehs; Xa;T vLj;jhu; vd;why; vd;d? "rhghj;' vd;w vgpNuar; nrhy;iyj;jhd; Xa;Tehs; vd;W nkhop ngau;f;fpNwhk;. ,jw;F epWj;JtJ> jtpu;g;gJ> Kbg;gJ vd;nwy;yhk; nghUs; cz;L. ehNlhb tho;f;ifia Muk;gj;jpy; Nkw;nfhz;l ,];uNay; kf;fs;> jq;fs; md;whl NtiyapypUe;J tpLgLtjw;F ,ayhkw;Nghapw;W. fhdhd; ehl;by; FbNawpa gpwF> xNu ,lj;jpy; jq;fp> gapu;j;njhopy; nra;a Muk;gpj;j ,];uNay; kf;fs; flTSf;F xU ehis xJf;fp tpl Ntz;Lnkd;w rka Nehf;Fld; ghgpNyhdpa tof;fj;jpypUe;j ~Xa;Tehs;| Kiwapid ,];uNay; kf;fSk; Vw;Wf;nfhz;ldu; vd;gJ Muha;r;rpahsu;fspd; fUj;J.

5.1. vz; VO
fhyj;ijf; fzpf;Fk; Kiwapy; vz; VO goq;fhy kf;fspilNa kpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jJ. nrkpj;jpa kf;fspilNa thuj;jpd; VotJ ehisj; jPikahd ehs; vd;Wk;> vt;tpjg; gyDk; mspf;fhj ehs; vd;Wk; fUjpdu;. Mjyhy; me;j ehis fz;bg;ghfj; jtpu;f;f Ntz;Lnkd;W Nghjpj;jdu;. mjdhy;jhd; ,d;Wk;$l ghy];jPd kf;fs; vz;fisf; $l;Lk;NghJ VO vd;w vz;iz cr;rupg;gjpy;iy. me;j vz;iz cr;rupj;jhNy jPik mtu;fis Ml;nfhz;LtpLk; vd;w %l ek;gpf;if td;ikahfg; gutpapUe;jJ. ghgpNyhdpaupd; ek;gpf;ifg;gb jPikahd Mtpapd; ngaNu VO MFk;.

,g;gpd;dzpapy; Nehf;Fk;NghJ ,];uNay; kf;fs; thuj;jpd; Vohk; ehis xJf;fptpl> mjhtJ> nra;Ak; Ntiy gydspf;fhJ vd;w ek;gpf;ifapy;> me;j ehis NtiyapypUe;J tpLgl;l ehshf Muk;gj;jpy; fUjpdu; (MNkh 8 : 5).

5.2. ,];uNayupd; jdpj;jd;ik
Vohk; ehs; jPikahdJ; MfNt md;W Ntiy nra;af;$lhJ vd;w ek;gpf;if kl;LNk ghgpNyhdpaUf;Fk; fdhNdaUf;Fk; ,Ue;jJ. ,J Xu; vjpu;kiw Nehf;F (Negative approach). Mdhy; ,];uNay; kf;fs;> ,e;j Xa;Tehs; tof;fj;ij jq;fs; mz;il ehl;ltuplkpUe;J ngw;wpUe;jhYk;> mtu;fsplkpUe;J xUgb NkNy nrd;W> Xa;Tehs; vd;gJ md;whl NtiyapypUe;J tpLgLtJ cz;ikjhd;; Mdhy; vjw;fhf? me;j ehisf; flTs; topghl;bw;fhfg; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lnkd;W Nghjpj;jdu;.

mjdhy;> jPikapd; ehs; vd;w fUj;J kiwe;J tpohtpd; ehs; vd;Wk;> kfpo;r;rpapd; ehs; vd;Wk;> Mz;ltupd; ehs; vd;Wk; khw;wpf; nfhz;ldu;. ,f;Fwpg;ig ehk; tpLjiyg; gaz E}ypy; fhz;fpNwhk;. ~MW ehs;fs; eP Ntiy nra;> Vohk; ehspy; Xa;Tnfhs;; cOk; gUtj;jpYk; mWtilg; gUtj;jpYk; $l Xa;e;jpU| (tpg 34 : 21)> mjd;gpwF te;j rl;lk; Vohk; ehspy; ve;j NtiyAk; nra;af;$lhJ vd;W Nru;j;Jf;nfhz;lJ (tpg 23 : 21). %d;whtJ fl;lkhf> flTis ikakhf itj;J me;j Xa;T ehis mDrupf;f Ntz;Lnkd;W Nghjpj;jdu; (,r 5 : 12-15). mjdhy; jhd; Xa;Tehs; Gdpj ehs; vd;w fUj;Jk; Njhd;wpaJ.

5.3. tuyhw;iw kwe;jdu;
"mkhthir NjhWk;> Xa;Tehs; NjhWk; khdplu; midtUk; vd; Kd; topgl tUtu; vd;fpwhu; Mz;ltu;>' vd;W vrhah mf;fhy kf;fSf;F Nkw;fz;l fUj;ij typAWj;Jfpwhu;' (vrh 66 : 23).

Mdhy;> ehsiltpy; (fp.K. 516-486) Ntiy nra;ahky; Xa;e;jpUg;gij rkar; rlq;fhff; fUjpdu;. Xa;Tehspd; Neupa Nehf;fj;ij kwe;jdu; (vrh 56 : 4). ,g;gpd;dzpapy;jhd; njhlf;fE}y; Kjy; mjpfhu Mrpupau; Xa;Tehs; fUj;jpidg; GFj;jp flTs; midj;ijAk; MW ehl;fspy; gilj;jgpd;> Vohk; ehspy; Xa;T vLj;jhu;; me;j Vohk; ehisg; Gdpjg;gLj;jpdhu; vd;W $wp> Xa;Tehspd; rupahd Nehf;fj;ij ,q;Nf typAWj;j tpUk;Gfpwhu;.

~Gdpjkhf;Fjy;| vd;why; gioa Vw;ghl;by; ,U nghUl;fis czu;j;Jk;.

m) ghtkhd> jPikahd nghUl;fspypUe;J gpupe;J> jdpj;J epw;gJ ( 1 rhK 6 : 20; XNr 11 : 9).
M) gf;jpAzu;itj; J}z;lf; $baJ .

,g;gbf;fhZk;NghJ> flTs; me;j Vohk; ehis mu;r;rpf;fpwhu;. mjhtJ kiwe;j MW ehl;fspypUe;J gpupj;J itf;fpwhu;. gilg;Gfs; flTis epidj;J kfpikg;gLj;j xUehis mtNu xJf;fp itf;fpwhu;. flTSf;Fk; kdpjDf;FKs;s cwit tsu;f;f> cWjpg;gLj;j> ntspg;gLj;j flTs; kdpjNdhL nra;j cld;gbf;if Xu; milahskhapUf;fpwJ. jdf;Fs;s gpukhzpf;fj;ij kdpjd; ntspg;gLj;j ,e;j Xa;T ehs; fhuzkhapUg;gjhy;> ,jid ~cld;gbf;ifapd; rpd;dk;| vd;Wk; $wyhk;.

Mjyhy;> flTisg; GfoTk; Nghw;wTk; thuj;jpy; xUehis (Sabath) xJf;fptpl Ntz;Lk;. mjw;Ff; flTNs topfhl;Lfpwhu; vd;gJ njhlf;fE}y; Mrpupaupd; Nghjid.

 

6. gilg;gpd; FLk;gk;

Kd;dNk Fwpg;gpl;lJNghy njhlf;f E}ypd; Kjw; gjpndhU mjpfhuq;fSk; A+jkf;fSf;Ff; $wg;gl;l kiwf;fy;tp ghlq;fs; vd;W nrhd;dhy; mJ kpifahfhJ. cyfpd; Muk;gk;> kdpjdpd; Muk;gk;. ghtj;jpd; Muk;gk;> njupe;njLf;fg;gl;l xU Fyj;jpd; Muk;gk; vd njhlf;fE}y; KOtJk; gy Muk;gf; fijfisf; $Wfpd;wd. ,tw;wpy; kdpjdpd; Njhw;wk;> tPo;r;rp gw;wp ~ahNt| ghuk;gupa Mrpupaupd; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; njhE} 2 ,y; fhz;fpNwhk;. fp.K. 10 Mk; E}w;whz;by; vOj;J tbtk; ngw;w ,k;kughdJ ,f;fhyj;jpw;F Kd;Ng tha;nkhopahfg; Ngrg;gl;L te;jJ. ghgpNyhdpa mbikj;jdj;jpd;NghJ (fp.K. 587-538) ,k;kughdJ Gj;jf tbtk; ngw;wjdhy; mj;jifa mbik tho;tpd; jhf;fk; epiwaNt fhzg;gl;lJ.

ghgpNyhdpahtpy; mbikfshf mtjpg;gl Ntz;ba msTf;F ,];uNay; vd;Dk; FLk;gk; Vd; rPuope;J tpl;lJ vd;Wk; rpe;jpf;fpwhu; ,k;kugpy; Njhd;wpa tptpypa Mrpupau;. mjdhy; cyfk;> kdpjd; cUthdJ vg;gb vd;W $wpdhYk;> cyfpy; cyTk; Jd;gq;fSf;Ff; fhuzk; vd;dntd;Wk; fhz tpiofpwhu;. RUq;ff; $wpd; kdpjdpd; md;whl mDgtkhd Jd;gq;fspd; njhlf;fKk; fhuzKk; ahJ vd;W tpilaspg;gNj njhE} 2 : 3 mjpfhuq;fspd; Nehf;fq;fshFk;.

Kjy; mjpfhuj;jpy; FUf;fs; kuG MrpupaUk;> ,uz;lhk; mjpfhuj;jpy; ahNt kuG MrpupaUk; gilg;Gg; gw;wp vOJfpd;wdu;. ,Ug;gpDk;> ,UtUf;Fk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f NtWghL ,Ug;gijf; fPo;f;fz;l ml;ltiz %yk; mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

Kjy; mjpfhuk;
1. thdKk; G+kpAk; Njhd;wpaJ vt;thW vd tpil jUfpwJ.
2. tpz;izAk; kz;izAk; gilj;jhu; vd;W $wp tpz;zpypUe;J Muk;gpf;fpwhu;.
3. flTspd; Mtpahdtu; nray;Gupfpwhu;.
4. gilg;G vd;w gpukpLtpy; kdpjd; rpfuk;.
5. flTs; kdpjNuhL neUq;fpa cwtpy;iy.
6. flTs; kdpjid MZk; ngz;Zkhfg; gilj;jhu;.
7. ,];uNay; kf;fsplk; epytpa Guhzf; fijfisAk;> ehl;Lg;Gwf; fijfisAk; vLj;jhz;L> Guhzf; flTspd; rf;jpfs;> kf;fs; kaq;fpa jPa rf;jpfs; xd;Wkpy;yhjit vd;W fhl;Lfpwhu;.

,uz;lhk; mjpfhuk;
1. kdpjdpd; jd;ik epiy gw;wp tpsf;FfpwJ.
2."kz;izAk;> tpz;izAk;' vd;W kdpjDf;F kpfTk; <LghLs;s kz;zpypUe;J Muk;gpf;fpwhu;.
3. flTNs nray;Gupfpwhu;.
4. gilg;G vd;w ~tl;lj;jpy;| kdpjd; ikak;.
5. flTs; kdpjDld; neUq;fpa cwT nfhs;fpwhu;.
6. kdpjDf;Fj; JizahfTk; ,izahfTk; ngz;izg; gilj;J FLk;gj;ij cUthf;Ffpwhu;.
7. cyfpy; epyTk; jParf;jpNa Jd;gj;jpw;Ff; fhuzk; vd;w ,];uNayupd; vz;zj;ij ePf;fp> flTs; fl;lisfis kPWtNj Jd;gj;jpw;Ff; fhuzk; vd;W $Wfpwhu;.

6.1. kdpjdpd; Njhw;wk;
,uz;lhk; mjpfhuj;jpy; ~ahNt| kuG Mrpupaupd; Fwpg;Gfspd; gb> flTs; "epyj;jpd; kz;zhy; kdpjid cUthf;fp> mtd; ehrpfspy; capu;%r;ir Cj> kdpjd; capu; cs;std; Mdhd;' (njhE} 2 : 7).

,g;gb vOjp> ,uz;L kuGf; fUj;Jf;fis xd;wpizj;J ahNt kuG Mrpupau; rupahd ,iwntspg;ghl;bid mspf;fpwhu;. nkrgNlhkpahtpd; vdpkh vyp\; vd;w Guhzj;jpy; kdpjg; gilg;Gf;Ff; fUtpahf fspkz;Zk; Jizf;fUtpahf ~fpq;F| vd;w nja;tj;jpd; ,uj;jKk; mikfpwJ. ~khu;Jf;| vd;w flTs; gilf;fpwhu;. ,j;jifa Guhzj;ij ed;F mwpe;jpUe;j ,];uNay; kf;fSf;F rupahd fUj;ij mspf;f tpUk;gpa tptpypa Mrpupau;> mNj ~fspkz;iz ahNt flTs; fUtpahfg; gad;gLj;jpdhYk;> jdJ capu;%r;ir mspj;J capu; nfhLf;fpwhu;| vd;W $wp> kdpj capu; tho;tJ ~khu;Jf;| vd;w nja;tj;jhy; my;y; khwhf> ~ahNt| vd;w xNu flTshy; jhd; vd;W Nghjpf;f tpUk;Gfpwhu;.

mj;Jld;> xU tptpypag; ghuk;gupaj;ijAk; ,tz; ,izf;fpwhu;.

"Mjhkh' vd;why; G+kp vd;W nghUs;gLk;. me;jg; G+kpapypUe;J cUtk; ngw;w kdpjid vgpNua nkhopapy; ~Mjhk;| vd;wioj;jhu;. kdpjDf;Fk; kz;Zf;FKs;s neUq;fpa njhlu;gpid> goq;fhy A+ju;fspd; ,e;j vz;zj;ij ,J ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ.

NkYk;> ",e;jf; Fatd; ifapYs;s fspkz;izg;Nghy ,];uNay; tPl;lhNu> ePq;fs; vd; ifapy; ,Uf;fpd;wPu;fs;' vd;w vNukpahtpd; ,iwthf;ifAk; (18 : 6) flTs; jdJ gilg;Gfspy; gytw;iwj; jd; ifNtiyapdhy; gilj;jhnud;w tptpypaj;jpd; kw;wg; gFjpfs; $WtijAk; (jpgh 95 : 5; vrh 45 : 7; MNkh 4 : 13; vNu 1 : 5) ahNt kuG Mrpupau; ,q;Nf ntspg;gLj;Jfpwhu;.

flTs; capu; %r;ir mspj;jhu; vd;W $Wtjd; %yk; flTNs capUf;Ff; fhuzk; vd;w fUj;J Kjd;ikahf ntspg;gLfpwJ. "tho;T jUk; Cw;W ck;kplNk cs;sJ' (jpgh 36:9)vd;Wk;> "vd; tho;ehs; vy;yhk; ck; mUs; eyKk; Ngud;Gk; vidg; GilR+o;e;J tUk;' (jpgh 23 : 6) vd;Wk; jpUg;ghly; Mrpupau; Gfo;tJ ,jdhy;jhd;. mj;Jld;> flTs; jkJ capu; %r;irj; jk;kplk; kPz;Lk; $l;bf;nfhz;lhy; "CDlk;G vy;yhk; xUq;Nf xopAk;> kdpju; kPz;Lk; kz;Zf;Fj; jpUk;Gtu;' vd;W NahG E}y; $Wtij ,q;F epidT $WNthk; (NahG 34 : 15).

6.2. tskhd tho;T
flTNs Kaw;rp vLj;J kpfTk; mf;fiwAld; gilj;j kdpjd; jdJ tho;tpy; vy;yh eyd;fisAk; ngw;W tho Ntz;Lnkd;W flTs; tpUk;gpdhu; vd;gJ ahNt kuG Mrpupau; fz;Nzhl;lk;. mj;jifa Rfkhd tho;Tf;Fg; gpd;tUk; R+o;epiyfis flTNs kdpjDf;F mikj;Jj; je;jhu; vd;W $Wfpwhu;.

1) VNjd; Njhl;lk;
Gtpapay; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ~VNjd;| vd;w ,lj;ijf; Fwpg;gpl;Lf; $w Kaw;rpg;gJ. ey;y rkhupad; ctikapy; jpUlu;fs; jhf;fpa ,lj;ij vUrNyKf;Fk; vupf;NfhTf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s ghijapy; ,Ue;j ,lNk vd;W Fwpg;gpLtJ Nghd;wjhFk;. Vnddpy; ,uz;LNk Xu; ,iwAz;ikia my;yJ ,iwntspg;ghl;il tpsf;Ftjw;F vOe;j ~ctik|fshFk;.

~VNjd;| vd;w vgpNuar; nrhy;Yf;F ,d;gk; - kfpo;r;rp - Rfk; vd;W nghUs;gLk;. Mjyhy;jhd; fpNuf;f nkhopngau;g;Gg; gioa Vw;ghl;by; ~Rfe;jUk; G+q;fh| vd;W vOjg;gl;lJ.

,t;tifapy; Nehf;Fk;NghJ> flTs; kdpjid Kjd; Kjypy; thoitj;j ,lk; ~,d;gtdkhf ,Ue;jJ| vd;w Mo;e;j fUj;J ntspg;gLfpwJ.

2) ejpfs; gpwe;jd
jhd; gilj;j ,d;gtdj;ij tskhf;f ejpnahd;W ehd;F gpupTfshff; flTs; Gwg;glr; nra;jhu;. cyf KOikAk; tskhf;Ffpd;w ejp Gwg;gLkplk; flTs; cUthf;fpa ,d;gtdNk vd;W tptpypa Mrpupau; $w tpUk;Gfpwhu;. ,jd; nghUs; vd;d? ehfupf Njhw;wj;jpw;F ejpfNs fhuznkd;gJ ekf;Fj; njupAk;. me;j ejpfs; cUthff; flTNs fhuzk;. mjhtJ> kdpjdJ midj;J Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;Fk; flTNs fhuzk; vd;W njhlf;fE}y; Mrpupau; $w tpUk;Gfpwhu;.

3) kdpjd; xU jPT my;y
njhlf;f E}ypd; ,uz;lhk; mjpfhuf; Fwpg;Gfspd;gb flTs; kdpjidj; jdpahf gilj;jhu;. Mdhy; mtd; jdpahf ,Ug;gJ ed;wd;W vd;W flTNs epidj;J mtDf;F xU Jizia Vw;gLj;jpdhu; vd;W gbf;fpNwhk; (njhE} 2 : 18-20). njhlf;fE}ypd; ,uz;lhk; mjpfhuj;jpy; kdpjd; ahUlDk; cwthlf;$ba R+o;epiyapy; ,y;iy. ,iwtd; mtid mg;gbNa tpl;LtplTk; tpUk;gtpy;iy. mtDld; rupepfuhf> mtdJ czu;Tfisg; gfpu;e;Jf;nfhs;sf;$ba xU Jizia Vw;gLj;j tpUk;gpdhu;.

~rupepfu;| vd;W $Wk;NghJ> mj;JizahdJ kdpjDf;F mbikAky;y mjpfhupAky;y. mj;Jld; mtDf;Ff; fPohd ,ay;GilaNjh my;yJ Nkyhd ,ay;GilaNjh my;y. mtidg;Nghd;w ,ay;Gfisf; nfhz;l> mNjrkaj;jpy;> mtDf;F Vw;Gila> mtdJ ,ay;GfSf;Fg; nghUe;jpa xU JiziaNa mtDf;Fj; ju tpUk;gpdhu;. ,j;jifa fUj;ij ntspg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fj;jpy;jhd; flTs; Mjhkpd; tpyh vYk;gpypUe;J Xu; vYk;ig vLj;Jg; ngz;iz cUthf;fpdhu; (njhE} 2 : 21-22).

me;j rkaj;jpy; MZf;Fj; J}f;fj;ijf; flTs; mspj;jpUe;jhuhk;. Vd;?

1) flTspd; ty;y nray;fis ve;j kdpjDk; njspthf mwpe;Jnfhs;s KbahJ.
2) Mizg; gilf;Fk;NghJ> vg;gbj; jd;idf; flTs; gilj;jhu; vd;gij Mz; mwpa ,aytpy;iyNah mNj Nghd;W ngz;iz cUthf;Fk;NghJ mtd; mJgw;wp mwpe;Jnfhs;sf; $lhJ vd;gjhy; flTs; mtidj; J}q;fr; nra;jhu;.
3) Mz; cUthFk;NghJk;> ngz; cUthFk;NghJk; MZk; ngz;Zk; gpwf;Fk; cz;ik gw;wp kdpjd; mwpatpy;iy.

,J Mz;> ngz; nfhs;Sk; cwtpd; Mo;e;j cl;nghUis czu;j;JfpwJ. Mz; - ngz; cwT GdpjkhdJ; ghYzu;T flTs; mspg;gJ. kdpj cwT gw;wp ehk; mwpe;jpUg;gpDk;> Gjpa capu; (Foe;ij) gpwg;gJ flTshNyNa vd;w fUj;Jk; ,jdhy; GydhfpwJ.

4) xNu clyha; ,Ug;gu;
",UtUk; xNu clyha; ,Ug;gu;' vd;W flTs; Kjy; ngw;Nwhupd; cd;dj epiyia tUzpf;fpwhu; (njhE} 2 : 24). ,jw;F Kd; xU trdk; tUfpwJ. ",jdhy; fztd; jd; jha; je;ijia tpl;Ltpl;Lj; jd; kidtpAld; xd;wpj;jpUg;ghd;' (24m). Mz; jdJ gpwe;j fhyj;ij kwe;J tpl Ntz;Lkh? ngw;Nwhiu Jwf;f Ntz;Lkh? tptpypa Mrpupaupd; Nehf;fk; mJty;y.

khwhf> ngz;zpd;Nky; MZf;Fs;s ,ay;ghd ftu;r;rpiaAk;> ngz;zpy;> Mz; fhZk; epiwitAk; kw;wtu;fistplg; ngz;zpd; Nky; MZf;Fs;s MiriaAk; tpsf;FtJjhd; ahNt ghuk;gupa Mrpupaupd; Nehf;fkhFk;. gilg;gpy; xd;whf ,Ue;j Mz; - ngz; ,UtUk; kdj;jhYk; cwthYk; xd;wpj;jpUe;jdu; vd;W $w tpUk;gpajhy;jhd; vgpNua tof;fj;jpy; ~clyhy;| xd;whapUe;jdu; vd;W $Wfpwhu;. mtu;fsJ kd xd;wpg;gpd; ntspg;ghL mLj;JtUk; trdj;jpy; njupfpwJ. ~kdpjd;> mtd; kidtp Mfpa ,UtUk; Milapd;wp ,Ue;jdu;. Mdhy; mtu;fs; ntl;fg;gltpy;iy| vd;W tptpypa Mrpupau; $Wfpwhu; (2 : 25).

1) kdpjd; jd; ,ayhikiaAk;> FiwiaAk; czu;e;J> Fok;gpg; NghFk;NghJ (jpgh 22 : 6; 68 : 7; vrh 29 : 22; vNr 17 : 17)> Kjy; kdpju;fs; ve;jf; FiwiaAk; czuhky;> Fog;gj;ijAk; milahky; ,Ue;jjhy; mtu;fs; ntl;fk; vd;gij mwpatpy;iy.

2) mLj;J> xUtd; ghtk; nra;Jtpl;ljhf czUk;NghJ ntl;fk; Vw;gLfpd;wJ (vNu 6 : 15; 8 : 12; 31 : 19; 51 : 51; vNr 16 : 52). Mdhy; flTs; Kd;dpiyapy; ,tu;fs; J}a;ikaha; ,Ue;jjhy; ntl;fk; mtu;fis Ml;nfhs;stpy;iy.

kdpj tho;tpd; cd;dj epiyapy; ,e;j Kjy; ngw;Nwhu; ,Ue;jdu; vd;W njhlf;fE}y; Mrpupau; tUzpf;fpwhu;.

 

7. gilg;gpd; tPo;r;rp

(mjpfhuk; - 3)

flTs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; ed;whfg; gilj;jhu; vd;why; Jd;gq;fSf;Fk; ghtq;fSf;Fk; ahu; fhuzk; vd;W gjpy; mspf;fpwJ ,e;j mjpfhuk;.

3-Mk; mjpfhuj;jpd; mikg;G:
m) NrhjidAk; tPo;r;rpAk; (3:1-7)
M) tof;fhly; (3:8-13)
,) jz;lid (3:14-24)

Nkw;fz;l %d;W epiyfis xt;nthd;whf ,tz; fhz;Nghk;.

7.1. NrhjidAk; tPo;r;rpAk; (3 : 1-7).
,e;j mjpfhuj;jpd; Muk;gj;jpNyNa ghk;igj; je;jpuKs;sjhff; Fwpg;gpl;L> kdpj tPo;r;rpapd; fUtpahfg; ghk;G cs;sJ vd;W ahNt kuG Mrpupau; vOJfpwhu; (3 : 1).

,jw;Ff; fhuzkpy;yhkypy;iy.
nkrgNlhkpah> vfpg;J> fpss];> cNuhik Nghd;w ehLfspy; cs;s rkag; Guhzq;fspy; ghk;G xU rhj;jhdhff; fUjg;gl;lJ. jq;fs; ehl;bd; vy;iy topahfj; jtwhff; fle;J nry;Nthupd; Nky; Jd;gq;fs; tuNtz;Lnkd;W nkrgNlhkpa kf;fs; Ntz;bf;nfhz;l xU rpy nja;tq;fspy; ghk;Gk; xd;whFk;. gps;isr; nry;tk; ngw kf;fs; Ntz;Lk; nja;tj;jpd; cUtKk; ghk;G Nghd;Nw ,Ue;jJ. ghgpNyhdpahtpy; ghk;ig cw;gj;jpf; flTshf topgl;ldu;. mbikj;jdj;jpy; ghgpNyhdpy; ,];uNay; kf;fs; tho;e;jNghJ mj;jifa topghl;by; <LghL fhl;bdu;. ,J kpfg;ngupa JNuhfk; vd;W fhl;l tpUk;Gfpwhu; tptpypa Mrpupau;.

Mjypd;> rpiy topghl;il mwNt xopf;fTk;> kdpjdpd; jPa Fzj;ijf; fz;bf;fTk; ghk;igg; GFj;jpa tptpypa Mrpupau;> ~je;jpuKs;s ghk;G| vd;W Fwpg;gpl;L gpd; mJ vg;gbj; jdJ je;jpu Fzj;jhy; kdpjid tPo;j;jpaJ vd;W njhE} 3-y; fhl;Lfpwhu;.

Nrhjid
ngz;zpd; gytPdj;ijg; Gupe;Jnfhz;l ghk;G> flTisg; gw;wpa Neu;khwhd fUj;Jf;fis mtsplk; $WfpwJ.

1. flTisg; gw;wpa ntWg;ig Cl;LfpwJ.
2. Nrhjpg;gtNd kdpjDf;F ez;gd; vd;w vz;zj;ijj; jUfpwJ.
3. kdpjdf;F Mirfisf; fhl;b> Mztj;jpw;Fk; J}gk; NghLfpwJ.
4. flTNs kdpj tsu;r;rpiaf; fz;L kdk; nghWf;fhjtu; vd;Wk;> ngha;au; vd;Wk; $wp Ngr;rpy; xUtpj ftu;r;rpiar; Nru;f;fpwJ.

ghk;G my;yJ jPa rf;jpahdJ ngz;zpd; gytPdj;ij ed;F gad;gLj;jpf;nfhz;lJ. kuj;jpd; fdpiag; ngz; Nehf;Ffpwhs;. flTisg;Nghy MfNtz;Lnkd;w Mirapdhy; J}z;lg;gl;l ngz;> me;jf; flTspd; fl;lisia kPwj; jahuhfptpl;lhs;. mtsJ cs;sk; flTsplkpUe;J mfYk;NghJ jhd; tpUk;gpa nghUs; (kuj;jpd; fdp) mtSf;F vy;yh tifapYk; ftu;r;rpahfNt fhzg;gLfpwJ (njhE} 3 : 6).

cyfpYs;s vy;yhg; ghtq;fSf;Fk; fhuzkhAs;s %d;W tifahd Mirfs; ngz;iz Ml;bg;gilj;jd; mtSk; ghtj;jpy; tPo;fpwhs;:

1. cz;gjw;F ey;yJ - cly; ,r;ir
2. ghu;itf;F ,dpaJ - nghUshir
3. mwpitg; ngUf;FtJ - Mztk;

xU kdpjd; ngwf;$ba gpd;tpisTfisr; rpe;jpf;f mtSf;F kdKkpy;iy> NeuKkpy;iy> mijg; gwpj;Jj; jhDk; cz;lhs;. jd; fztDf;Fk; nfhLj;jhs;. mtDk; mijj; jpd;whd;.

Nrhjidapd; tpisT:
fz;fs; jpwf;fg;gly;. ,jd; nghUs; vd;d? kPl;gpd; ehspy; "ghu;itaw;Nwhupd; fz;fs; ghu;f;Fk;' (vrh 35 : 5) vd;W vrhah $wpdhNu> mJ Nghd;wNjh? ,y;iy. khwhf mtu;fsJ ghtj;jhy; jq;fspd; ,opepiyiaf; fhZk; "kdpjf; fz;fs;' jpwe;J nfhz;ld. ",ayhikf; fz;fs;' jpwe;J nfhz;ld. Mjyhy; ntl;fk; mtu;fis thl;baJ. jhq;fs; nra;j ghtj;jpd; fhuzj;jhy; flTsplkpUe;J gpupe;jjdhy; mtu;fsJ ,ayhikiaAk; ifahyhfhj jd;ikiaAk; czu;fpd;wdu;. Mjyhy;> flTs; Kd;dpiyapy; epw;f ehzp> mtiu tpl;Lj; J}ug; gazk; nra;fpd;wdu;.

7.2. tof;fhly;
me;Neuk; ,d;gtdj;jpy; cytpf;nfhz;bUe;j flTs; kdpjdpd; ,r;nraiyf; fz;L (njhE} 3 : 8)> "vq;Nf ,Uf;fpwha;' vd;W Nfl;fpwhu;. Mjhk; ,Uf;Fk; ,lk; flTSf;Fj; njupahJ vd;gjy;y; khwhf> kdpjd; jd; Fw;wj;ij czu;e;Jnfhs;s flTs; jhNk mtidj; Njb miog;G nfhLf;fpwhu; vd;w fUj;ij ntspg;gLj;j ,j;jifa Af;jpiag; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu; tptpypa Mrpupau;.

flTSila gpurd;dj;ijf; fz;L Fw;wKs;s kdpjd; gag;gLfpwhd;.

"eP Vd; ,t;thW nra;jha;?' vd;W Nfs;tpia Mzplk; flTs; Nfl;f> Mz; ngz;idf; Fw;wk; nrhy;y> ngz; ghk;gpd; kPJ Fw;wk; Rkj;Jfpwhs;. mjhtJ> $bg; ghtk; nra;jtu;fs; xUtu;> xUtu; Nky; Fw;wk; rhl;Lfpd;wdu;. gopia mLj;jtu; Nky; NghLfpd;w kdpjdpd; nghJthd kdepiyiaf; $Wtijtpl> ghtj;jpd; jd;ikiaAk; mjd; tpisitAk; tpsf;FtJjhd; tptpypa Mrpupaupd; Nehf;fkhFk;.

vd;d tpisTfs;?
Kjypy; flTisf; Fw;wthspahf;Ffpwhd;. Mjhkpd; fz;fSf;F flTs; JNuhfk; Gupe;jtuhfj; Njhd;Wfpwhu;. mjdhy;> Muk;gk; Kjy; flTs; kdpjNdhL nfhz;l je;ij kfd; vd;w cwT KwpfpwJ.

mLj;J> MZk; ngz;Zk; xNu clyhf ,Ue;jtu;fs;> ,g;nghOJ ~mts;jhd; ghtp> ehd; ePjpkhd;> vd;w gpuptpidia Mz; Vw;gLj;jp ,UtUf;FKs;s neUq;fpa cwit Kwpj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhd;. ,UtUk; xNu ghtj;ijr; nra;jdu;; Mdhy; mNj ghtk; mtu;fisg; gpupf;fpwJ.

NkYk;> "ghk;Gjhd; vd;id tQ;rpj;jJ'vd;gjd;%yk; ,aw;ifAld; jhd; nfhz;bUe;j xg;GuitAk; Fiyj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhd; kdpjd;.

7.3. jz;lid
1) ghk;G ngw;w jz;lid: jz;lidiag; ghk;gpypUe;J Muk;gpf;fpwhu;. flTs; ,aw;if epajpapd;gbg; ghu;f;Fk;NghJ> ghk;G jdJ tapw;wpdhy; Cu;e;J nry;tJk;> kz;izj; jpz;gJk;> kdpjDld; vg;nghOJk; ~gif| czu;itf; nfhz;bUg;gJk; mjd; ,ay;Gjhd;. ,Ug;gpDk; Mo;e;j ,iwg;gw;Ws;s ahNt kuG Mrpupau; midj;J epfo;r;rpfisAk; flTs; fz;nfhz;L fhz;fpwhu;. Nkw;nrhd;d ",ay;Gfs;' mtUf;F xU Fiwahf> mJTk; ghtj;jpd; jz;lidahfj; njupfpwJ. flTSf;nfjpuhf nrUf;fpid cUthf;fpa ghk;G tapw;wpdhy; Cu;tJ> kz;izj; jpz;gJ Nghd;w ,op epiyf;Fk;> rpWik epiyf;Fk; Mshf;fg;gl;lJ vd;Wk;> kdpjNdhL njhlu;e;J Nghuhl;lk; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; tptpypa Mrpupau; fhz;fpwhu;. xU jdpg;gl;l kdpjDf;Fk;> ghk;Gf;Fk; Vw;gLk; Nghuhl;lj;ijtpl> kZf;Fyj;jpw;Fk; jPikf;Fk; elf;Fk; Nghuhl;lj;ij epidTf; $w Ntz;Lk;.

2) ngz;Zf;Fupa jz;lid
Mrpupaupd; fhl;rpaikg;ig cw;WNehf;Fk;NghJ:

Nrhjid : ghk;G - ngz; - Mz;
tof;fhly; : Mz; - ngz; - ghk;G
jz;lid : ghk;G - ngz; - Mz;
vy;yhtw;wpYk; eLehafkhf tPw;wpUg;gts; ngz;. MtJk; ngz;zhy; moptJk; ngz;zhy; vd;w fUj;ij nka;ahf itj;Jf; fhz;fpwhu; tptpypa Mrpupau;.

nghJthf> goq;fhy A+jr; rKjhaj;jpy; ngz;fSf;F rKjha cupik mspf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. mtu;fs; kpfTk; jho;e;j epiyiaNa ngw;wpUe;jdu;. Mzpd; clikahfNt fUjg;gl;lhs; (tpg 20 : 17)> rka topghl;bYk; cupikapy;iy (,r 16 : 16; Nytp 15 : 16-20).

,ijf; fz;ZWk; tptpypa Mrpupau;> Mz; rKjhak; ngz;fSf;F ,iof;Fk; nfhLikahf kl;Lk; ,ijf; fUjtpy;iy. ,jid ,iwtd; mspj;j jz;lidahfTk; fUjpdhu;. MizAk;> ngz;izAk; xg;gpLk;NghJ %d;W tpjj;jpy; Miztplg; ngz; mjpf Ntjid mDgtpg;gijf; fhz;fpwhu;.

1) NgWfhy Ntjid
2) Mz; Nky; Mu;tKk;> milf;fyKk; nfhs;tJ
3) MZf;F mlq;fp elg;gJ ,j;jifa mty epiy Vd;? flTs; fhuzky;y; mtsJ ghtNk fhuzk; vd;W fz;lhu; tptpypa Mrpupau;.

3) Mz; ngw;w jz;lid:
,q;NfAk; kdpjd; md;whlk; mDgtpf;Fk; ,ay;ghd Jd;gq;fis (G+kp rgpf;fg;gl;ljhf> new;wp tpau;it epyj;jpy; tpo ciog;gJ> rhT) kdpjd; nra;j ghtj;jpd; tpisthff; fhz;fpwhu; ~ahNt| ghuk;gupa Mrpupau;.

nghJthfNt ,];uNay; kf;fspd; Gtpapay; gpd;dzpapy; MuhAk;NghJ mtu;fsJ $lhu ehNlhb tho;Tk; rup> mjd; gpwF mtu;fs; Nkw;nfhz;l tptrha tho;f;ifAk; rup mtu;fSf;Fj; Jd;gk; epiwe;jjhfTk;> fbdKs;sjhfTNk mike;jJ. ,j;Jd;gq;fSf;nfy;yhk; fhuzk; kdpjk; nra;j ghtNk vd;W ek;gpa tptpypa Mrpupau;>mjid Kjy; ngw;Nwhu; nra;jjhf cUtfpj;J vOJfpwhu;.

3 : 15 gw;wpa rpwpa tpsf;fk;
"cdf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; cd; tpj;Jf;Fk; mts; tpj;Jf;Fk; gifia cz;lhf;FNthk;...'

,g;gFjp md;id kupiag; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLfpwjh?
njhlf;fE}ypd; Mrpupaupd; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy;> ,USf;Fk; xspf;Fk;> nja;tPf rf;jpf;Fk; jPa rf;jpf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s Nghuhl;lk; cyfpy; njhlu;e;Jnfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk; vd;w nghJthd fUj;ijj;jhd; ehk; fhz;fpNwhk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> kPl;gu; ,NaRtpd; gpd;dzpapy; kupahit kiwKfkhf fhz;gjpy; jtwpy;iy.

jz;lidf;Fg; gpd; ,d;g epiyia kdpjd; ,of;fpwhd;. mij kPz;Lk; flTs; nfhLj;jhnyhopa kdpjdhy;ngw KbahJ vd;gij czu;j;jNt ,d;g thapy; %lg;gl;ljhf Mrpupau; fhl;Lfpwhu;. MapDk; flTspd; ,uf;fk; kdpjidj; njhlu;fpwJ vd;gijf; fhl;l Njhy; Milfisj; jUtjhf Mrpupau; vOJfpwhu;.

 

8. rNfhjug; gif

njhlf;fE}ypd; gjpndhU mjpfhuq;fis Kjy; ghtk; (mjp 1- 3)> ghtg; ngUf;fk; (4 - 11) vd;W ,uz;lhfg; gpupf;fyhk;. xU ghtk; gy ghtq;fisg; gpwg;gpf;fpwJ vd;w cz;ikia 4 -11 mjpfhuq;fs; tpupthf vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wd. mtw;wpd; Kjy; mq;fe;jhd; rNfhjug; gif vd;gJ. kdpjd; flTisg; Gwf;fzpf;Fk;NghJ mLj;J tUk; tpisT vd;d? xUtu; xUtiug; Gwf;fzpf;f Muk;gpg;Nghk;. ,e;j cz;ikiaj;jhd; ~fhapd; - MNgy;| vd;w cUtff; fij %yk; tptpypa Mrpupau; tpsf;Ffpwhu;.

8.1. gpupTfs;
,e;j ehd;fhk; mjpfhuj;ij %d;whk; mjpfhuj;NjhL xg;gpl;Lg; ghu;f;Fk;NghJ ,U mjpfhuq;fSk; xNu ghzpapy; tbf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ njspthFk;.

1) nghwhik - xt;nthU jPa nraYf;Fk; ,Jjhd; J}z;Ljy; (4 : 6 - 7)
2) flTs; fl;lisia kwe;J tpLjy;
3) ghtKk; ePjpAk; (1 : 10)
4) jz;lid (4 : 11-15)
5) gak;> ntl;fk;> Fw;w czu;T tsu;e;Jnfhz;Nl nry;Yjy;.

8.2. tpsf;fk;
ehd;fhk; mjpfhuj;jpd; Muk;gj;jpy; cs;sgb ghu;j;jhy; fhapd; - MNgy; ,UtUk; Mjhk; - Vths; vd;w Kjy; ngw;Nwhupd; Neubg; gps;isfs; Nghd;W Njhd;WfpwJ. Mdhy;> mtu;fsJ njhopiyAk;> me;j mjpfhuj;jpy; Mrpupau; jUk; kw;w Fwpg;GfisAk; Muha;e;J ghu;f;Fk;NghJ fhapd; vd;gtd; coTj; njhopy; nra;j fdhNdau;fisAk; MNgy; vd;gtd; fhy;eilfis Nka;j;J te;j ,];uNayu;fisAk; Fwpj;J epw;Fk; milahsr; rpd;dq;fshtu;.

fhapd;> MNgy; ,UtUk; jq;fs; ciog;gpd; gyid flTSf;Ff; fhzpf;ifahf;Ffpd;wdu;; Mdhy; fhapd;> MNgy; Nky; nghwhik nfhs;fpwhd;! nghwhik tsu;e;J jd; rNfhjuu; MNgiyNa xopj;J tpLfpwhd;! flTis kwe;jtd;> jd; rNfhjud; vd;w cwitAk; kwe;J tpLfpwhd;. mjdhy; ge;jghrk; kiwe;J tpLfpwJ. Raeye;jhd; tpQ;RfpwJ vd;gij tptpypa Mrpupau; mofhf vLj;Jiuf;fpwhu;.

"cd; rNfhjud; vq;Nf?' vd;W flTs; fhapidg; ghu;j;Jf; Nfl;fpwhu; (4 : 9) ,J> "eP vq;Nf ,Uf;fpwha;?' vd;W Mjhikg; ghu;j;Jf; Nfl;ljw;F xj;jpUf;fpwJ.

"ehd; vd;d> vd; rNfhjuDf;Ff; fhtyhspNah?' vd;W fhapd; flTisg; ghu;j;Jf; Nfl;L> jdJ Fw;wj;ij mjpfupj;Jf;nfhs;fpwhd;. rNfhjuu;fs; xUtUf;nfhUtu; mutizj;Jr; nry;yNtz;Lnkd;w goq;fhy ,];uNayupd; cWjpahd vz;zj;ij ,q;Nf fhz;fpNwhk; (njhE} mjp 36-50). ghtj;jpd; kpff; nfhba tpisitAk; tsu;r;rpiaAk; fhapdpd; ,j;jifa gjpypy; fhz;fpNwhk;.

nghwhik nfhz;l fhapd;> xU nfhiyiar; nra;fpwhd;. me;jf; nfhiyiaj; njhlu;e;J flTsplNk ngha;ia nrhy;fpwhd;. ghtk; vg;gbg; ngUFfpwJ vd;gij tptpypa Mrpupau; mofhf vLj;Jiuf;fpwhu;.

"cd; rNfhjudpd; ,uj;jj;jpd; Fuy; kz;zpypUe;J vd;id Nehf;fpf; fjwpf;nfhz;bUf;fpwJ' vd;w ePjpia mspf;fpwhu; flTs; (4 : 10). ePjpkhdpd; ,uj;jk; vg;nghOJk; flTspd; ,uf;fj;ijg; ngWk; vd;w ,];uNayupd; Mo;e;j ek;gpf;if ,q;Nf ntspg;gLfpwJ. mLj;J fhapd; ngWk; jz;lidia> flTs; ghtpf;Ff; fhl;Lk; ,uf;fj;ijAk; fhz;fpNwhk; (4 : 11-15).

- gapupLk;NghJ mJ gyd; juhJ.
- ehNlhbahfj; jpuptha;

Nkw;fz;l jz;lidapy;> KjyhtJ MjhKf;Ff; flTs; mspj;j jz;lidia xj;jpUf;fpwJ (3 : 17) ,uz;lhtJ - fdhNdaUf;Fk; ,];uNayUf;Fk; cs;s gifAzu;it ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ. jd; rNfhjuidAk;> flTisAk; tpl;L gpupe;jtd; mehijahfj; (ehNlhbahf) jpupthd; vd;w ,iwapay; fUj;Jk; cs;slq;fp epw;fpwJ.

 

9. ghtj;jpd; tsu;r;rp

(njhE} 5:10)

njhlf;f E}ypd; Ie;jhk; mjpfhuk; Mjhkpd; topkugpdu; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. gj;jhk; mjpfhuk; Nehth Gjy;tupd; topkugpdu; gw;wpa jiyKiw ml;ltiziaj; jUfpwJ. ,tw;wpy; Ie;jhk; mjpfhuj;jpy; jug;gl;Ls;s jiyKiw ml;ltizia MuhAk;NghJ gpd;tUk; cz;ikfs; ntspg;gLfpd;wd. nghJthf jq;fs; ,dj; J}a;ikia ep&gpf;f ,g;gbg;gl;l jiyKiw ml;ltiz mspg;gJ A+j kugpdu; tof;fk;. mj;Jld; Ie;jhk; mjpfhuj;jpy; xU rpwg;Gf; fUj;Jk; ,ize;Js;sJ; Ie;jhk; mjpfhuj;jpd;gb

Mjhk; capu; tho;e;j Mz;Lfs; - 930
Nrj;J capu; tho;e;j Mz;Lfs; - 912
Nfdhd; capu; tho;e;j Mz;Lfs; - 910
VNdhR capu; tho;e;j Mz;Lfs; - 905
kfNyy; capu; tho;e;j Mz;Lfs; - 830

,g;gbj; njhlu;e;J Fwpg;gpLk; tptpypa Mrpupau;fspd; Nehf;fj;jpy; fhZk;NghJ> MjhKf;Fg; gpwF mLj;jLj;J tho;e;jtu;fspd; MAl;fhyKk; Fiwe;Jnfhz;Nl tUtij ehk; fhz;fpNwhk;.

,jd; nghUs; vd;d?
ghgpNyhdpa Guhz fjhghj;jpuq;fspy; tUgtu;fshd mNyh&]; vd;gtu; 36>000 Mz;LfSk;> myhNghU]; vd;gtu; 10>800 Mz;LfSk; capu; tho;e;jdu; vd;W Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jpy; tuyhw;W cz;ikia tplg; Nghjpf;Fk; fUj;ijj;jhd; ehk; ,q;F fhz Kay;Nthk;.

mNj Nghd;W tptpypa Mrpupau; jUk; jiyKiw ml;ltizapy; tUk; MAl;fhyj;jpd; Nehf;fk; ,tu;fnsy;yhk; vt;tsT Mz;Lfs; tho;e;jdu; vd;gijtpl> vt;tsT fhyj;jpw;F Kd; tho;e;jdu; vd;W Fwpg;gpl tpUk;Gfpwhu;. mj;Jld;> jhd; vOJtjw;F vj;jid Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dhy; cyfk; Njhd;wpaJ vd;gJ MrpupaUf;Fj; njupahJ. vdNt> cyfk; Njhd;wpaJ Kjy; tptpypa fhy epfo;r;rpfSf;Fg; ghyk; mikf;fTk; ed;ikffspYk; jPikfspYk; ehk; midtUNk gq;F nfhs;fpNwhk; vd;W $wTNk jdJ %jhijaUf;F ePz;l tho;ehl;fisj; je;jhu;.

 

10. ey;ytd; tho;thd;

(nts;sg;ngUf;F njhE} 6-9)

njhlf;f E}ypd; 6-9 mjpfhuq;fspy; Nehth gw;wpa fijapidf; fhz;fpNwhk;. ghtk; vt;tsT ngUfptpl;lJ vd;W fhl;lTk;> me;jg; ghtj;jpd; tpisthf rKjhar; rPu;Nfl;ilf; flTNs nts;sg; ngUf;fpd; %yk; fise;J> Nehth vd;w ey;ytiu vg;gbf; fhg;ghw;Wfpwhu; vd;W tpsf;FtjhfTk; tptpypaj;jpd; ,g;gFjp tUfpwJ.

mj;Jld; kw;nwhU fhuzKk; cs;slf;fp epw;fpwJ. nts;sg; ngUf;F gw;wpa ghgpNyhdpag; Guhzj;ij kWj;J> tptpypa Mrpupau; ek;gpf;if fz;nfhz;L njhlf;fE}y; nts;sg; ngUf;if vOJfpwhu;. (,Jgw;wpa tpupthd tpsf;fj;ij g. Vw;ghl;L Kd;Diu gf;. 32-33 y; fhz;f).

10.1. ,uz;L tpjf; Fwpg;Gfs;
njhlf;fE}ypd; nts;sg; ngUf;Fg; gw;wpa Fwpg;Gfis MuhAk;NghJ xUrpy epfo;r;rpfs; ~$wpaJ $wy;| Kiwapy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf

7:12 "ehw;gJ gfYk; ehw;gJ ,uTk; kz;Zyfpy; ngU kio nga;jJ'
7 : 17 "ehw;gJ ehs;fshfg; ngUnts;sk; kz;Zyfpy; te;J nfhz;bUe;J.
mLj;J xU rpy Kuzhd Fwpg;GfSk; cs;sd. (v.fh)
7 : 2 "jf;f tpyq;Ffs; vy;yhtw;wpypUe;Jk; MZk; ngz;Zkhf VO NrhbfisAk; ..' vd;Ws;sJ. Mdhy; 7:15 "capUs;s midj;Jk; Nrhb Nrhbahf Nehthtplk; Ngiof;Fs; nrd;wd' vd;W fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

Vd; ,j;jifa khw;wk;?
njhlf;f E}ypy; nts;sg; ngUf;F gw;wp ,];uNay; kf;fspd; ,U kugpy; Njhd;wpa Mrpupau;fSk; vOjpa Fwpg;Gfs; 6> 7> 8> 9> mjpfhuq;fspy; gpw;fhyj;jpy; njhFf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. mjdhy;jhd; xUrpy ,lq;fspy; $wpaJ $wy; vd;w jtWk; Kuzhfj; Njhd;WtJk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

nts;sg; ngUf;F gw;wp ahNt kuG MrpupaUk; FUf;fs; kuG MrpupaUk; vOjpAs;sdu;. mtu;fspd; Fwpg;Gfisg; gpd;tUkhW gpupj;Jf; fhzyhk;.

  ahNt kuG FUf;fs; kuG
1 . Nehthitf; fhg;ghw;wp kDf;Fyj;ij mopf;ff; flTs; jpl;lkpLjy; 6:5-8 6:9-22
2. Nehthitf; fhg;ghw;w flTs; vLf;Fk; nray; Kiw 7:1-5
7:10
7:11
13:16m
3. kDf;Fyj;ij mopf;Fk; flTspd;jpl;lk; mKyhf;fg;gly; 7:12>16 M> 17 m
22> 23 m> 23 ,
17 m
18-21>24
4. Nehthitf; fhg;ghw;Wk; flTspd; jpl;lk; 8:26> 3m
; 6-12>13 M
8:1-2m
3 M -5
5 Nehthtpd; gyp 8:20-22 14-19
6. kDf;Fyj;ij kPl;ff; flTspd; jpl;lk;. 8 : 21-22 9:1-19

10.2. ,iw topghL
ghgpNyhdpa ~fpy;fNk\;| vd;w Guhzj;jpw;F xg;g Nehthtpd; fijia tptpypa Mrpupau; mikj;jhYk;> ,];uNaypd; rka ek;gpf;ifapypUe;J Kw;wpYk; khwhkYk;> mj;jifa ek;gpf;ifia ,f;fijapd; %yk; typAWj;jpf; $wpAk; vOJfpwhu;.

6 : 1 njhlu;e;J> nja;tg; Gjy;tu;fs; kdpj Gjy;tpaNuhL cwT nfhz;ldu; vd;W Mrpupau; vOJtjd; %yk;> ey;ytu;fSk; ehl;fs; nry;y nry;yf; nfl;Ltpl;ldu; vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;.

nja;tg; Gjy;tu;fisr; Nrj;jpd; tk;rj;jpduhfTk; (4 : 26) ey;ytu;fshfTk; rpj;jupf;fpwhu;. khwhf> kdpjd; Gjy;tpaiu fhaPd; tk;rj;jpduhfTk;> nfl;ltu;fshfTk; rpj;jupf;fpwhu;. Nehth ey;ytu;fspd; $l;lj;jpy; xUtu;. ey;ytu;fis vd;Wk; fhj;J> jPatu;fisf; flTs; jz;bg;ghu; vd;gij ,q;F Mrpupau; typAWj;Jfpwhu;. ~ngl;lfk;| flTSila guhkupg;ig ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ. ~jf;f| tpyq;Ffs; vd;Wk; ~jfhj| tpyq;Ffs; vd;Wk; tptpypa Mrpupau; gpupj;J vOJtjd; Nehf;fk; (7 : 2) A+j kugpy; gypf;F ve;j tpyq;Ffs; Vw;wit> ve;j tpyq;Ffs; Vw;f jfhjit vd;W gpupj;J itj;jpUe;jij epidT gLj;Jfpwhu; Mrpupau;. VO Nrhb> VO ehl;fs;> ehw;gJ ehl;fs; (6 : 2-4>10) Nghd;w nrhw;fis tptpypa Mrpupau; gad;gLj;Jtjd; fhuzk; A+j kugpy; ,t;ntz;fs; KOikiaf; Fwpf;fpd;wd.

10.3. cld;gbf;if
nts;sg;ngUf;F Kbe;jTld; Nehth flTSf;F ed;wpg;gyp epiwNtw;Wfpwhu;. mg;nghOJ flTs; NehthTld; Xu; cld;gbf;if nra;Jnfhs;fpwhu;.

nts;sg;ngUf;fpd;%yk; gilg;gpw;F Ke;jp epytpa Fog;g epiy Vw;gLfpwJ (6 : 11; 7 : 4> 11-12). Mdhy; kPz;Lk; Gjpa rKjhak; vOe;jJ. flTs; mg;Gjpa rKjhaj;NjhL cld;gbf;if nra;fpwhu; (9 : 8-17) thdtpy; milahskhf mikfpwJ. ,e;j cld;gbf;ifahy; Gjpa cupikfSk; flikfSk; vOfpd;wd. ~gYfpg; ngUfp kz;Zyif epug;Gq;fs;... kz;Zyfpy; tpyq;Ffs;> thdj;Jg; gwitfs;> epyj;jpy; Cu;td> flypd; kPd;fs; midj;Jk; cq;fSf;F mQ;rp eLq;fl;Lk;' (9 : 2>7).

Nehthtpd; Gjy;tu;fs; ( 9:18-29 )
Nrk;> fhk;> vg;Ngj;J vd;Dk; Nehthtpd; gps;isfs; gw;wpa Fwpg;G tUfpwJ. ,tu;fs; gw;wp vOJtjd; nghUs;: Nrk; - nkrgnjhkpah> mNugpahtpy; tho;e;j ,dq;fisAk;> fhk; - vg;Ngj;J ,dq;fisAk; Fwpg;gjw;fhfNt MFk;. cyfpy; gy ,dq;fs; vg;gbj; Njhd;wpd vd;gjw;F tptpypa Mrpupau; ,JNghd;w tpsf;fj;ij mspf;fpwhu;. "Rdhkp' vd;Dk; Mopg; Nguiyfshy; Vw;gl;lg; Nguopit ,e;epfo;r;rpNahL xg;gpl;L rpyu; NgRtJ <z;L Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

 

11. rKjhag; ghtk; ( mjpfhuk; -11 )

Kjy; kdpjd; nra;j ghtj;jpd; fhuzj;jhy; cyfpd; ghtk; ngUfj; njhlq;fpaJ. Kjypy; FLk;gj;Jf; Fs;Ns Vw;gl;l gifAk; ghtKk; (fhapd; - MNgy;)> kf;fsplk; nghJthfg; gutp (ngUnts;sk;)> kdpjr; rKjhak; KOtJNk ghtj;jpy; cod;wJ vd;W fhl;l tpUk;Gfpwhu; tptpypa Mrpupau;. me;j cz;ikia tpsf;fNt njhlf;f E}ypd; gjpNdhwhk; mjpfhuj;jpy; 9- tJ trdj;jpy; ghNgy; NfhGuf; fijia vOJfpwhu;.

~ghNgy;| vd;why;> Fog;gk; vd;W Mrpupauhy; jtwhd nghUs; jug;gLfpwJ. Fog;gk; vd;gjw;F ~ghyhy;| vd;gNj rupahd thu;j;ij. ~ghNgy;| vd;why; flTspd; thapy; vd;gjhFk;. gpw ,dj;jhUf;F flTspd; thapyhfTk; ek;gpf;ifapd; milahskhfTk; epd;wpUe;j mLf;Ff; NfhGuq;fis (rpf;Fuhj; 17) itj;Jj; jdJ fUj;Jf;F Vw;wthW fijia mikf;fpwhu;.

11.1. mikg;G
t.1: Kd;Diu: "cyfk; KOtjpYk; xNu nkhopAk; xNu tpjkhd nrhw;fSk; ,Ue;jd'vd;W Kd;Diuf;fpwhu;. ,g;gFjpapy; rKjhag; ghtj;jpd; tpisthy; mtu;fspy; nkhop NtWghL cz;lhfp> Fog;gk; Vw;gl;L gpupe;J nry;yg; Nghtij vjpu;kiwahf ,J czu;j;JfpwJ.

tr. 2-4 "thUq;fs;...' vd;W kf;fs; xd;W$b flTSf;nfjpuhf nray;gLtijg; gw;wp vOJfpwhu;.

tr. 5-8: flTs; mjw;F vg;gbr; nray;Gupfpwhu; vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpwhu; Mrpupau;.

tr. 9: KbTiu: jz;lid (kf;fs; rpjWz;L nrd;wdu;).

11.2. gpd;dzp
tptpypaj;jpy; cs;s ghNgy; NfhGuf; fijapd; gpujhd Nehf;fk; rKjhag; ghtj;ijf; Fwpg;gpl;L> mjd; tpisthf cyfpy; nkhopf; Fog;gk; Vw;gl;L> kDf;Fyk; rpjwpr; nrd;wJ vd;W $WtJ. ,ijNa khw;wpr; nrhy;tjhdhy;> kDf;Fyk; cynfq;Fk; rpjwpf; fplg;gjw;fhd fhuzk; vd;dntd;W ek;gpf;if mbg;gilapy; rpe;jpj;j tptpypa Mrpupau;> kdpj rKjhaj;jpd; ghtNk mjw;Ff; fhuzk; vd;Wiuf;fpwhu;. cyfpy; kDf;Fyk; rpjwpf; fplg;gjw;Fg; gy goq;fhyf; fijfs; cs;sd. RNkupag; Guhzkhd ~vd;nku;fhu;| vd;gjpy; "Nlhq;nf]; ghNgy;' vd;w fij tUfpwJ. mjpy;> tptpypa Fwpg;GfSf;F xg;g Kjypy; nkhop Fog;gKk;> mLj;J rKjhak; rpjwpr; nry;tjhfTk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. njhlf;fE}y; jUk; Fwpg;Gfspy; ngupa tpj;jpahrk;: xU flTs; nfhs;if njhlf;f E}ypy; typAWj;jg;gLfpwJ.

11.3. tpsf;fk;
11 : 1 "mg;nghOJ cyfk; KOtjpYk; xNu nkhopAk; xNu tpjkhd nrhw;fSk; ,Ue;jd'.

~kdpjupilNa| vd;W Fwpg;gplNt cyfk; KOtJk; vd;W ahNt kuG Mrpupau; vOJfpwhu;. mJkl;Lky;yhky;> MrpupaUf;Fj; njupe;j md;iwa cyfj;ij kl;Lk; mJ Fwpf;fpwJ. ~mf;fhyj;jpy; mf];J rPru; jk; NguuR KOtJk; kf;fs; njhifiaf; fzf;fpLkhW fl;lis gpwg;gpj;jhu;| vd;W Y}f;fh vOjpaNghJ (Y}f; 2 : 1) vg;gb mtUf;Fj; njupe;j cNuhik cyfk; kl;Lk; Fwpf;fg;gLfpwNjh> mNjg;Nghd;W fp.K. 6Mk; E}w;whz;by; ~ahNt| kuG MrpupaUf;Fj; njupe;j cyfj;ij kl;Lk; ,J Fwpf;fpwJ. ~xNu nkhopAk; xNu tpjkhd nrhw;fSk;| vd;W Fwpg;gpl;L mg;gFjpapy; tutpUf;Fk; vjpu; tpistpid Kd;Diuahf Mrpupau; mofhfj; jUfpwhu;. tr. 2-4 kf;fs; vy;yhUk; xd;W$l "thUq;fs;' vd;W xUtu; xUtUf;F miog;G tpLj;jdu;. elf;ftpUf;Fk; nraypy; xt;nthbUtUf;Fk; KOg;nghWg;Gk;> <LghLk; cs;sJ vd;gij ,J fhl;LfpwJ. mtu;fsJ cWjpg;ghl;ilAk; czu;j;JfpwJ.

11.4. vjw;fhf ,j;jifa miog;G?
NfhGuk; vOg;g: ~nrq;fy; mWj;J NfhGuk; nfhz;l efiuf; fl;bdu;| vd;W vOJfpwhu; Mrpupau;. ,J goq;fhy vfpg;jpa> A+j> nkrgNlhkpa Kiwiaj; njspthf czu;j;JfpwJ. mj;Jld; ~vrhfpypah| vd;w NfhGuk; fl;LtJ gw;wp vdpkh vyp\; vd;w ghgpNyhdpa Guhzj;jpy; vj;jifa Fwpg;Gfisg; ghu;f;fpNwhNkh mtw;iwNa tptpypa MrpupaUk; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu; (ANET 68F)

"cyfk; KOtJk; ehk; rpjWz;L Nghfhjgb...' vd;W kf;fspd; tpUg;gk; cs;sJ. Mdhy;> mjw;Nfw;g mtu;fs; elf;ftpy;iy vd;gij mNj trdj;jpNyNa Mrpupau; Fwpg;gpLfpwhu; (tr 4): "thdshtpa NfhGuk; nfhz;l efu; xd;iw ekf;fhff; fl;b vOg;gp> ekJ ngaiu epiyehl;LNthk;' vd;wdu;.

,jpy; flTSf;F vjpuhd mtu;fsJ ,U kdg;ghd;ikfisf; fhz;fpNwhk;.

1) thdshtpa NfhGuk;
thdk; vd;gJ ,];uNayUf;Ff; flTspd; ciwtplk;. flTspd; ciwtplj;Jf;F epfuhd NfhGuk; vd;why;> flTSf;F epfuhf vd;gJ nghUs;. jq;fisg; gilj;Jf; fhj;J tUk; flTisg; Gwf;fzpj;J tpl;L> jhq;fNs jq;fSf;Ff; flTshf khwptpLfpd;w mtu;fsJ mfq;fhuk; ,jpy; ntspg;gLfpwJ.

2) ekJ ngaiu epiyehl;LNthk;:
,];uNay; kf;fspd; rka ek;gpf;if vd;dntd;why; flTs;jhd; xUtupd; ngaiu epiyngwr; nra;fpwhu;. flTs; jkJ kPl;Gr; nray;fshy; jkJ ngaiu epiyngwr; nra;fpwhu;; kf;fspd; ngiuAk; epiyngwr; nra;fpwhu; (vrh 63 : 12; vNr 32 : 20; neNf 9 : 10) flTs;jhNd Mgpufhk;> <rhf;F> ahf;NfhG Nghd;w FyKJtu;fspd; ngaiuAk; epiyngwr; nra;jhu;. cz;ik ,g;gbapUf;f> ghtj;jpy; cod;w ,r;rKjhak; flTisg; Gwf;fzpj;j ,r;rKjhak; jq;fs; ngaiuj; jhq;fNs epiyehl;LNthk; vd;Dk; mfe;ijAzu;itg; ngw;Wr; nray;gl;lJ vd;W tptpypa Mrpupau; vOJfpwhu;.

mjhtJ flTis kwe;j kf;fs;> jq;fisNa (jq;fs; gyk;> gytPdk; vd;dntd;W) kwe;jdu; vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;. tr. 5-8: ,g;gFjpapy; ahNt kuG Mrpupaupd; kugpd;gb flTs; vg;gb kDf;Fyr; rPuopTw;Fg; gjpyspf;fpwhu; vd;W fhz;fpNwhk;. ,q;F "thUq;fs;...'(tr7) vd;gJ flTspd; cWjpahd Kbitj;jhd; Fwpf;fpwNjnahopa gd;ikg; nghUspy; tUtjpy;iy. flTs; nfhLj;j jz;lid: cyfk; KOtJk; rpjWz;L nry;tJ. top: nkhopf; Fog;gk; xd;whf ,Ue;J flTSf;F vjpuhf Fw;wk; nra;jjdhy; gpupe;J nrd;W md;dpauhFk; jz;lidiag; ngw;wdu;. ve;j nkhop mtu;fisg; ghtj;Jf;F cl;gLj;jpaNjh (tr 1) mNj nkhop mtu;fSf;Fj; jz;lidahf te;jJ.

 

12. FyKJtu; tuyhW: ,];uNayu; Njhw;wk;

( njhlf;f E}y; 12 - 50 )

njhlf;f E}ypd; ,g;gFjp Mgpuhk;> <rhf;F> ahf;NfhG> kw;Wk; NahNrg;G vd;w FyKJtu;fspd; tuyhw;iwj; jUfpwJ. Mgpufhkpd; miog;gpypUe;J Muk;gpf;Fk; ,g;gFjpjhd; (12 : 1) cz;ikapy; tptpypa tuyhw;wpd; Muk;gk; MFk;. mJNghd;Nw Mgpufhk; ,];uNay; kf;fspd; je;ij vd;w mstpy; Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l kf;fshd ,];uNaypd; (njhE} 17 : 5-8) tuyhw;wpd; Muk;gKk; ,JNt.

tptpypa tpsf;fTiuapy; "tuyhw;Wg; gFg;gha;Tg; nghUs; Nfhs; Kiw' (Historical Critical Methord) fp.gp.18 Mk; E}w;whz;by; cUthdJ. ,jw;F Kd;ngy;yhk; FyKJtu;fspd; tuyhW ntWk; Gidf;fij vd;Nw fUjg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; mfo;tha;Tfs;> tuyhw;W mwptpay; Ma;T vy;yhk; tsu;r;rpAs;s ,f;fhyj;jpy; ,tu;fspd; tuyhw;Wf; Fwpg;Gfs; ngUk;ghYk; cz;ikapy; ele;j epfo;Tfshf cWjp nra;ag;gl;Ls;sd.

,Ug;gpDk;> ,d;iwa fhy etPd tuyhW Nghd;W FyKJtu;fspd; tho;f;iff; Fwpg;Gfis vLj;Jf;nfhs;sf; $lhJ. khwhf> rkaf; fz;Nzhl;lj;Jld; Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l my;yJ njhFf;fg;gl;l tuyhW vd;W Gupe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. xU FLk;g tuyhwhfr; rpj;jupf;fg;gLk; ,];uNayupd; fij (njhE} 12-50) tptpypaj;Jf;Fg; Gwk;ghd rpy VLfspy; fhzf;fplf;Fk; gof;ftof;fq;fSf;F xj;jpUf;fpd;wd vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf jd; kidtpf;Ff; Foe;ijg; NgW ,y;yhtpby; thupRf;fhf Ntiyf;fhup %yk; Foe;ijg;NgW miltJ Nfj;jpaupd; tof;fk; vd;W E}rp vd;w ,lj;jpy; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l VLfs; ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wd (njhE} 16 : 1-2; 30 : 1-4). ,e;j VLfs; fp.K. 15 Mk; E}w;whz;by; vOjg;gl;ld. mJNghy cld;gbf;if nra;jy; (njhE} 15 : 7-11) jiykfd; cupik (njhE} 25 : 29-34) Nghd;w gof;ftof;fq;fSk; me;j VLfspy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

,Nj Nghd;W FyKJtu; fhyj;Jg; ngau;fs; gyTk; tptpypaj;Jf;Fg; Gwk;ghd VLfspy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. tptpypaj;jpy; ,e;j mjpfhuq;fis (12-50) ,g;gFjpapy; Njhw;Wtpf;Fk; Kjd;ikahd fjhghj;jpuq;fis ikakhf itj;Jg; gbg;gJ gaDs;sjhFk;.

12.1. Mgpu(f)hk;
njuhFtpd; kfd; Mgpuhk;jhd; "Mgpufhk;' vd;W flTshy; ngauplg;gl;lhu; (njhE} 17 : 5). ,g;ngaUf;F ",iwtd; cau;e;jtu;| vd;Wk;> "gy ,dj;jtUila je;ij' vd;Wk; nghUs; fhzyhk;. Mgpuhkpd; je;ij njuhF nkrgnjhkpah ehl;ilr; rhu;e;j "Cu;' vd;w ,lj;ijr; Nru;e;jtu;. ,J jw;Nghija Fitj;> <uhf;F ehLfspd; mUNf cs;sJ. ghgpNyhdpa fyhr;rhuj;jpy; tsu;e;J nropj;j ehL ,J. Mgpufhk; vNkhupau; ,dj;ijr; Nru;e;jtu;. ,J Ml;L ke;ijia Nka;f;Fk; xU ehNlhb ,dkhFk;.

miog;Gk; cld;gbf;ifAk;
jdJ ML Nka;f;Fk; njhopypd; fhuzkhf Mgpuhk; nkrgnjhkpahtpypUe;J Gwg;gl;L Nka;r;rYf;F trjpahd fhdhd; ehl;L kiyg;gFjpf;F fp.K. 1900-y; jdJ je;ij njuhFTld; FbNawpdhu; vd;W Muha;r;rpahsu;fs; fUJfpd;wdu;. rpwg;ghf> ngj;Njy;> vg;Nuhd;> ngau;nrgh Nghd;w ,lq;fs Nka;r;rYf;F VJthd ,lq;fshf ,Ue;jd.

,jid kPl;Gf; fz;nfhz;L jpUE}y; Mrpupau; vOJfpwhu;. nkrgNjhkpahtpypUe;J ghy];jPdhTf;Fr; nry;Yk;gb flTNs miog;G tpLj;jjhf vOJfpwhu; (njhE} 12 : 1-3). ,jd; %yk;> kPl;gpd; Kjy; fUtpahd ,];uNay; kf;fspd; miog;G Muk;gkhfpwJ (12 : 3). ,ijj; njhlu;e;J tUk; tuyhw;W epfo;Tfs; flTshy; mspf;fg;gl;l thf;FWjpapd; epiwthf cs;sjhf tptpypak; $WfpwJ (njhE} 17 : 1-15; 26 : 4; 28 : 14; tpg 9-24).

,jd; mbg;gilapy;jhd; Mgpufhkpd; ngau; khw;wKk; (njhE} 17 : 5)> mtuJ gy gazq;fSk; mikfpd;wd. rpwg;ghf> fy;NjahtpypUe;J fhdhdpy; nrf;NfKf;Fk;> mq;fpUe;J ngj;NjYf;Fk; (12 : 8) mq;fpUe;J kk;NuTf;Fk; (13 : 18) ehNlhbahf tho;f;if elj;jpdhu;. Mdhy; flTs; mspj;j thf;FWjpapd; fhuzkhf (njhE} 13 : 14-16) ghy];jPd ehl;il NahRthtpd; jiyikapy; (fp.K. 1225) ngWfpd;wdu;. tptpypak; Mgpufhik ek;gpf;ifapd; je;ijahfr; rpj;jupf;fpwJ (njhE} 15 : 6; cNuh 4 : 3; fyh 3 : 6). njhE} 17:10-y; tUk; fl;lisahdJ ("cq;fSs; xt;nthU MZk; tpUj;jNrjdk; nra;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;') ,];uNaypy; cld;gbf;ifapd; milahsr; rpd;dkhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

njhE} 19-y; tUk; NrhNjhk; nfhNkhuhtpd; mopT fhdhdpy; Kiwaw;w xUghy; cwT gutyhf ,Ue;jijf; fhl;LfpwJ. ,J rhf;fly; gFjpapy; ,Ue;jpUf;fyhk;. Nyhj;jpd; kidtp cg;Gr;rpiyahdJ xU fhuzk; fhl;ly; fijahf tUfpwJ. njhE} 22-y; tUk; gyp (Mgpufhk; <rhf;if gypapLjy;) Mgpufhkpd; Mo;e;j ,iwek;gpf;ifia ntspg;gLj;j vOjg;gl;ljhFk;. Gjpa Vw;ghl;L xspapy; fz;lhy;> flTs; jdJ xNu kfd; ,NaRitg; gypahf;fpaJ xg;Gikahf tUfpwJ. <rhf;F tpwFfisj; jhNd Rke;J nrd;wJ ,NaR rpYitiaj; jhNd Rke;jjw;F xg;ghfpwJ.

12.2. <rhf;Fk; ahf;NfhGk;
Mgpufhkpd; Kjy; Ngwhfpa ,];khapiy Nju;e;njLf;fhky; ,uz;lhtjhfg; gpwe;j <rhf;ifj; Nju;e;njLj;J. thf;FWjpapd; ike;jdhf (njhE} 26) mtid khw;Wfpwhu; flTs;.

mJNghyNt> <rhf;fpd; kf;fspy; %j;jtd; vrhit tpLj;J> flTs; ahf;Nfhigj; Nju;e;njLf;fpwhu; (njhE} 27). ,jpy; flTspd; miog;G vd;w kPl;Gj; jpl;lk; mlq;fpapUg;gpDk;> ahf;NfhG nra;j jtWf;fhf> gupfhukhf jdJ khkd; tPl;Lf;F Xbg;Ngha; mq;F 20 Mz;Lfs; thoNtz;bapUe;jJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> MgpufhKlDk; <rhf;FlDk; flTs; nra;j thf;FWjp ahNfhgpy; njhlu;fpwJ vd;W tptpypa Mrpupau; fhl;LtJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ (njhE} 28 : 13-14).

mJNghd;Nw> ahf;Nfhgpd; 12 gps;isfspy;> A+j kuGg;gb jiykfd; Kd;Dupik ngwhkhy;> ehd;fhtJ kfdhd A+jh Kd;Dupikg; ngw;W mtdJ re;jjpapy; jhtPJ gpwe;J> mtuJ tk;rj;jpy; ,NaR fpwp];J Njhd;Wfpwhu;. NkYk; ahf;NfhG uhNfiyf; fhjypj;J kze;J nfhz;lhu;. Mdhy; mtu;fSf;Fg; gpwe;j kf;fis tpLj;J> jdJ khkdhu; yhghdpd; R+o;r;rpahy; kzf;f Neu;e;j NyahTf;Fg; gpwe;j kf;fNs kPl;G tuyhw;wpy; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wdu;. ahf;NfhGf;Fk; NyahTf;Fk; gpwe;j kf;fspd; re;jjpfNs NkhNrTk; jhtPJk;.

,jdhy;> jhNd tuyhw;W ehafd; vd;W flTs; fhl;LtNjhL> gytPdkhd fUtpfisg; gyKs;s fUtpfshfj; jhd; khw;w ,aYk; vd;gijf; flTs; njspthff; fhl;Lfpwhu;.

njhE} 32y; tUk; ahf;NfhG nja;tPf kdpjNuhL NghuhLk; epfo;r;rp ,U cz;ikfis tpsf;Ftjhf tUfpwJ.

(1) ,];uNay; vd;w ngau; mj;jUzj;jpy; ahf;NfhGf;F mspf;fg;gl;L me;j ,dk; ahf;NfhgplkpUe;J Muk;gpf;fpwJ vd;W fhl;lg;gLfpwJ. ,jdhy; ,];uNay; kf;fs; flTshy; Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l ,dk; vd;gJ typik ngWfpwJ.

(2) kpUfq;fspd; njhilg;gFjpia A+ju;fs; cz;zyhfhJ vd;gij epahag;gLj;Jk; fijahTk; (Etiblbgy) ,J mikfpwJ.

12. 3. NahNrg;G
ahf;Nfhgpd; kfd; NahNrg;gpd; fij njhE} 37 Kjy; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,J xU FWehty; Nghd;W vOjg;gl;L ,];uNaypd; ntw;wp> Qhdk; vy;yhk; flTs; gaj;jhy; cUthfpwJ vd;w Md;kPff; fUj;ij typAWj;Jtjhf tUfpwJ. mt;tifapy; nja;tgf;jpf;Fk; mjdhy; vOfpd;w Qhdj;Jf;Fk; ,yf;fzkhf NahNrg;G fhl;lg;gLfpwhu;.

,j;Jld;> FLk;gj;jpy; nghwhikAk; faikAk; vg;gb mtu;fsJ rNfhjug; ghrj;Jf;F NfL tpistpf;fpwJ vd;W FLk;gg; gz;igAk; tpsf;Ftjhf mtuJ fij tUfpwJ. NkYk;> jPaJ midj;ijAk; flTs; vg;gb ey;yjhf khw;Wfpwhu; vd;Wk; (45 : 28; 50 : 20-21) A+jh Fyk; vg;gb Kjd;ik ngWfpwJ vd;Wk; (njhE} 37) tptpypa Mrpupau; ,jdpy; njspthf;Ffpwhu;.

vfpg;jpy; NahNrg;G (njhE} 41 Kjy;)
fp.K. 1720 - 1550 tiuapyhd fhyf;fl;lj;jpy; NahNrg;G Nghd;w nrkpj;jpau;> kw;Wk; `pf;Nrh]; ,dj;jpduhy; vfpg;J Msg;gl;lJ vd;gJ tuyhw;W cz;ik.

,ijg; gpd;dzpahff; nfhz;L ghu;j;jhy; NahNrg;G vfpg;jpy; vg;gb MSeuhf tu Neu;e;jJ vd;gJ GupAk;. ,jpy; ,iwj;jpl;lj;ijf; fhZk; tptpypa Mrpupaupd; ghq;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ (njhE} 45 : 5; 46 : 1-34). ahf;Nfhgpd; MrpiuAk; kuzj;ijAk; gw;wpj; njhlf;f E}ypd; ,Wjp ,U mjpfhuq;fs; tptupf;fpd;wd (njhE} 49-50).

,J gy;NtW kuGf;fspd; njhFg;ghFk;. ,];uNaypd; gd;dpU Fyq;fs; vj;jifa vjpfhyk; fhztpUf;fpd;wd vd;gJ tptupf;fg; gLfpwJ. ,jdpy; A+jh Fyj;jpd; Kd;Dupik njspthf;fg;gLfpwJ.

ahf;NfhG ,we;jNghJ jd; nrhe;j ehlhd fhdhdpy; Gijf;fg;gLtJ mtUf;F me;ehl;by; ,Uf;Fk; cupikiaAk; flTs; mtu; top kugpdUf;F thf;FWjpapd; ehlhf mspf;ftpUg;gijAk; czu;j;JfpwJ (49 : 29-50 : 41).

NahNrg;G jdJ kuzj;Jf;F Kd; vy;yhiuAk;> Fwpg;ghf> jdJ rNfhjuu;fisAk; kd;dpj;jhu; vd;W $wp vNyhfpk; kuG Mrpupau;fs; jq;fs; ,iwapaiy typAWj;Jfpd;wdu; (50 : 20).

 

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