jpUntspg;ghL

mUs;jpU.gPl;lH mgPH

tptpypa md;gu;fNs>
tzf;fk;. mQ;ry;top tptpypaf ;fy;tpapd; filrpg;ghlj;jpw;F te;Js;Nshk;. jpUtptpypaj;jpd; filrpE}yhd jpUntspg;ghLgw;wp ,e;jg;ghlj;jpy; gbf;fTs;Nshk;. Gjpa Vw;ghl;L E}y;fspNyNa Gupe;Jnfhs;tjw;F kpfTk;fbdkhd E}y; jpUntspg;ghL vd;w vz;zk ;ngUk;ghyhd fpwpj;jtu; kj;jpapy; epyTfpd;wJ. ,JTk; J}aMtpapd; J}z;Ljyhy; vOjg;gl;l xUE}y; vd;Dk; fUj;ijAk; ,d;iwar; R+oypy; ekJ fpwpj;jt Md;kpfj;jpw;F ,e;E}y; kpFe;j ek;gpf;ifia Cl;lf;$baJ vd;Dk; rpe;jidiaAk; ,g;ghlk; kpfTk; vspa Kiwapy; tpsf;fpr;nrhy;fpwJ. jpUntspg;ghl;L E}ypy; gy Mz;Lfs; Ma;Tnra;J Kidtu;gl;lk; ngw;Ws;s ekJ tptpypa epiyaj;jpd; Kd;dhs; ,af;Feu; mUs;jpU. gPl;lu; m. mgPu; mtu;fs; ,e;jg;ghlj;ij vOjpAs;shu;. Mo;e;j GyikiaAk; cau;e;j vz;zq;fisAk; mwpQu;fspd; $w;WfisAk; Ma;tpd; KbTfisAk; kpfTk; vspa jkpopy; ntFrpwg;ghf ,g;ghlj;jpy; je;Js;shu;. mUs;je;ij mtu;fSf;F ekJed;wp fye;j ghuhl;Lf;fs;. ed;wp.

md;Gld;
mUs;jpU. N[hkpf;];
; ,af;Feu;.

cs;Ns

1. jpUntspg;ghL: Gjpuhd E}y;
2. Nahthd; fz;l fhl;rp
3. Gupahj nkhopfs;
4. jpUr;rigapd; rthy;fs;
5. ,WjpAfg; Nghu;
6. Mrpupau;
7. vq;fpUe;J? vg;nghOJ?
8. ,iwthf;Fk; fbjKk;
9. jpUr;rigapd; re;jpg;Gfs;
10. jpUntspg;ghL: %yKk;> mikg;Gk;

1. jpUntspg;ghL : Gjpuhd E}y;

nfhk;Gld;Foe;ij! cyif mopf;Fk; Nga;f; Foe;ij! vd;W ,d;iwa ehspy; gyu; NgRfpwhu;fs;. tisFlh Nghu;> fk;A+dpr rpijTNghd;w R+oypy;cyf KbTgw;wpg; gyu; Ngrp> vOjp kf;fspd; gaj;jpy; gzk; rk;ghjpf;fpd;wijAk; ehk; fhz;fpNwhk;. 666 vd;w Gjpuhd vz;iz gw;wp jtwhf vOjpAk; NgrpAk; kf;fisf; Fog;Gfpwhu;fs;. "1>44>000 Ngupy; ePAk; xUtuh? mg;NghJ eP ,ul;rpf;fg;gLtha;” vd;W Ntjg; Nghjfu;fs; rpyu; $l;lj;ijf; ftu;e;jpOf;fpwhu;fs;. ,tw;Wf;nfy;yhk; fhuzk; jpUtptpypaj;jpd; ,Wjp E}yhd jpUntspg;ghl;L E}ypy; tUk; xU rpy Fwpg;Gfisj; jtwhfg; gad;gLj;JtJ kl;Lky;y> me;j E}iyg; gw;wp ek;kpy; ngUk;ghNyhUf;F xd;WNk njupahjJk; Kf;fpa fhuzk;.

ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;l E}yhd mJ ekf;F kiwe;j E}yhfNt cs;sJ. Vd;,e;j epiy? ,jw;F ,uz;L fhuzq;fisf; $wyhk;:

(1) jpUntspg;ghL vOjg;gl;Ls;s tpjk; Gupahj nkhopahf cs;sJ. vLj;jf;fhl;lhf> VO nfhk;GfSk; VO fz;fSKila Ml;Lf;Fl;b (5:6)> ,uj;jk; fye;j fy;kio (8:7)> ngz;fspd; $e;jiyAk; rpq;fj;jpd; gw;fisAk; nfhz;l ntl;Lf;fpsp(9:8)> ePu;jpus;Nky; mku;e;jpUf;Fk; tpiykfs; (17:1) vd;W ,ay;Gf;F khwhd gy cUtq;fs;! jd; thyhy; tpz;kPd;fspd; %d;wpy; xU gFjpia epyj;jpd; kPJ ,Oj;Jg;NghLk; muf;fg; ghk;gpd;mRu nray;fs;(12:4) vd;WGjpuhd Kiwapy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. Gdpj E}yhf vLj;J thrpf;Fk; ekf;F mJ Fog;gj;ij Vw;gLj;JfpwJ. mjdhy; mjidg; gbf;fhky; xJf;fp tpLfpNwhk;.

(2) Mrpahtpd;VOjpUr;rigfSf;F$Wk; nra;jpfisj; (1:4- 5) jtpu;j;J kw;w mjpfhuq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; Kj;jpiufs;> vf;fhsq;fs;> thijfs; Nghd;w nra;jpfs; ahTk; ekJ md;whl tho;Tld; njhlu;Gilajhfj; Njhd;Wtjpy;iy vd;W epidj;J> gyu; ,e;E}iygbg;gjpy;iy. mjdhy;,e;E}y;xJf;fg;gl;l E}yhf cs;sJ.

,e;epiy,d;WNew;WcUthdjy;y; jpUr;rigapd;njhlf;f fhyk; njhlq;fp jpUntspg;ghL vd;W ,e;j E}y; gy rthy;fisr; re;jpf;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ. jpUE}y; njhFg;gpy; ,WjpE}y; ,J. mt;thNw flTspd; J}a Mtpahy; Vtg;gl;ljhf jpUr;rig tuyhw;wpYk; ,J ,Wjpapy;jhd; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,j;jpUntspg;ghL Kjd; Kjypy; rpwpa Mrpahtpd; VO jpUr;rigfSf;F mspf;fg;gl;lJ. mg;NghJ mjid mq;Nf vy;yhUNk Vw;Wf; nfhz;ldu; vd;W nrhy;y KbahJ (2:2> 6> 14- 15> 20-23). jpUr;rigj; je;ijau; I];bd;khu;lu; (fp.gp130)> ,uNdA];(fpgp 177) kw;Wk; rpwpa Mrpahtpd; rhu;jp]; vd;w ,lj;jpd; Mau; nkypj;Njh (fp.gp. 175) Nghd;wtu;fs;vy;yhk; jpUntspg;ghLvd;Dk; ,e;E}y;flTshy;Vtg;gl;lE}yhfVw;Wg; gad;gLj;jpte;jdu; vd;W jpUr;rig tuyhW $WfpwJ.

,Ug;gpDk;> ,e;E}ypd; Gupahj nkhopfis Mjhukhff; nfhz;L NtW rpy je;ijau;fs; ,jid xJf;fp itj;jdu;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf nrrhupah Mau; vTNrgpa];(fpgp4 Mk;E}w;whz;L)> vUrNykpy; rpupy; (fpgp 315-385)> fpwpNrh];jk; (fpgp 347-407) Nghd;w fPioj;jpUr;rigapd; je;ijau;fs; ,e;E}iy clNd Vw;ftpy;iy. NkYk; rPupah nkhop ngau;g;ghd tptpypaj;jpy; fp.gp. 500 tiu jpUntspg;ghL ,lk; ngwtpy;iy. ,j;jifa jaf;fk; md;NwhL Ko;?Jtpltpy;iy. fpgp 16-Mk; E}w;whz;bd; rka kWkyu;r;rpf; fhyj;jpy; khu;bd;Y}j;ju;> fhy;tpd;> ];tpq;fpypNghd;w mwpQu;fs; $b ,e;E}iyg; Gdpj E}yhf Vw;gjpy; jaf;fk; fhl;bdu;. mjdhy;jhd; tptpypaj;jpy;kw;w vy;yh E}y;fSf;Fk; tpsf;fTiu vOjpa khu;bd; Y}j;ju; jpUntspg;ghl;il kl;Lk; xJf;fp itj;jhu;. ,d;Wk; $l fpNuf;f Mu;jNlhf;];(Oreek brthbdbx) fpwp];jt topghl;L thrf E}ypy; jpUntspg;ghL ,lk; ngwtpy;iy. mJkl;Lky;y> ,NaRtpd; ew;nra;jp E}y;fisAk;> gTypd; kly;fisAk; gbj;J> fpwp];jt md;G kd;dpg;G> ,uf;fk; Nghd;w gz;Gfspy; epiyj;Jtpl;L> jpUntspg;ghl;L E}Yf;Fr; nrd;why; mq;Nf ekf;F Fog;gq;fSk;> cs;s neWly;fSk; tuhkypy;iy. Vnddpy;> ,e;E}ypy; ght efukhd ghgpNyhd; kd;dpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. khwhf kpfj; jPtpukhff; jz;bf;fg;gLfpwJ (18:6)> flTs; gopthq;f Ntz;Lnkd;W Ntjrhl;rpfs; Ntz;Lfpwhu;fs;(6:10)> "je;ijNa ,tu;fis kd;dpAk;” vd;w(Y}f; 23:34) nrk;kwpahd ,NaRtpd; Kd;dpiyapy; ghtpfs; vup neUg;gpdhYk; fe;jfj;jhYk; jz;bf;fg;gLfpd;wdu; (14:10). Mf> td;KiwfSk; jz;lidj ;jPu;g;Gk; xd;wd;gpd; xd;whf flTshYk; mtuJ kfd; ,NaRthYk; epfo;j;jg;gLk; fhl;rpfs; jpUntspg;ghl;by; Vuhsk; (6:1-8; 8:7-9:21; 16:1-20). ,itahTk; ,e;E}iyg; Gupahjg; Gjpuhff; fhl;LtJld;> ehk; vspjhf xJf;fptplTk; nra;fpd;wd.

Mdhy;> Mo;e;J Nehf;fpdhy; ,e;E}y; vOe;j tuyhw;W r%f rkar; R+oiy Muha;e;J ghu;j;jhy; ,e;E}y; vOjg;gl;l tpjk;> Nehf;fk; fz;lhy; - jpUE}ypd; kw;w E}y;fisg; Nghd;W ,JTk; flTspd; thu;j;ijjhd; vd;gJ njspthFk;. mJkl;Lky;y> tptpypaj;jpd; kw;w vy;yh E}y;fSf;Fk; jpUntspg;ghL xU epiwthf ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gijAk; ehk; mwpNthk;.

2. Nahthd; fz;l fhl;rp
fp.gp. 95-y;jpUntspg;ghL vd;w ,e;j E}iyNahthd;vOjpa NghJ> md;iwa ehspy;epytpa r%f - rka neUf;fbfs;> mjdhy; jpUr;rig mDgtpj;j Ntjidfs; - ,tw;iwg; gpd;dzpahff; nfhz;L> MWjYk; ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpAk; mspf;f vOjpdhu; vd;gJ cz;ikNa. mg;gbnadpy; mr;nra;jpia Neubahf vOj Ntz;baJjhNd> vjw;fhf> "ehd;fhl;rpfz;Nld;”> vd;Wk;> "rpq;fg; gw;fisf; nfhz;l ntl;Lf;fpsp| (9:8)> ~nfhk;Gs;s ML” (6:5)> "fjputid Milahf cs;sg; ngz;” (12:1) vd;Wk; Gupahj nkhopfspy; vOj Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; jhd; ,e;E}iyg; gbf;fNt gyUf;F kdk; tutpy;iy vd;W Nfl;gJ GupfpwJ. ,jw;F tpil fhzNtz;Lkhdhy; ,e;j Mrpupau; nrhy;y tpUk;gpa ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpia ve;j ,yf;fpa Kiwapy; vOjpdhu; vd;WMuha Ntz;Lk;.

jpUntspg;ghL
Nahthd; jdJ E}iy> ",J ,NaR fpwp];J mUspa jpU ntspg;ghL” (1:1) vd;W Muk;gpf;fpwhu;. ,jpypUe;J ,e;E}y; ~jpUntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpa tifia Nru;e;jJ vd;W GupfpwJ. "mg;Nghfypg;];” vd;w fpNuf;f thu;j;ijiaj;jhd; jpUntspg;ghL vd;W $WfpNwhk;. ,jw;F> ~kiwthAs;sij ntspg;gLj; Jjy;> vd;gJ nghUs;. ,d;Dk; Fwpg;ghf ,jd; nghUis tiuaWf;f Ntz;Lkhdhy;> ~jpUntspg;ghL vd;gJ ,t;Tyfpw;F mg;ghw;gl;l milahsq;fshy; cyfpd;,Wjpehl;fspy;jPikf;Fvjpuhf flTs; nfhzutpUf;Fk; ntw;wpiag; gw;wp Jd;gj;jpy; thOk; kdpjUf;F vLj;Jiuf;Fk; xU ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpakhFk;| vd;W $wyhk;.

3. Gupahj nkhopfs;
ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaj;jpd; jd;ikfs; Gupahj milahsq;fs; vd;dntd;W MuhAk; jUzj;jpy; Nahthd;vOjpaj; jpUntspg;ghLNghd;w "ntspg;ghl;L” E}y;fspd; (Apocalypse) nghJthdjd;ikfs;vd;dntd;Wfhz;Nghk;.

1. ntspg;ghl;L E}y;fs;> A+j kugpYk; rup> fpwp];jt kugpYk; rup> Gidg; ngaupy;E}y;fs;vOjg;gLtJtof;fk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> fp.K. 8 Mk; E}w;whz;by; tho;e;J ,we;j jhdpNay; vd;w ,iwthf;fpdupd; ngaupy; fp.K. 2Mk; E}w;whz;by; ghgpNyhdpa> fpNuf;fmuru;fs;fhuzkhfvOe;j rkaneUf;fbapd;gpd;dzpapy; jhdpNay; Mfkk; vOjg;gl;lJ. fpwp];jt kugpy; ,jw;F xU tpjptpyf;Fcz;L. mJjhd;jpUntspg;ghL. ,jd;Mrpupau; jdJ cz;ikg; ngaupNyNa vOJfpwhu; (1:1> 4>9). Gfo; ngw;w Kd;Ndhu; xUtupd; ngaupy; jpUntspg;ghl;L E}iy xUtu; vOJtjw;F gy fhuzq;fs; ,Ue;jd. Fwpg;ghf ,e;E}y; goik tha;e;jJ vd;W fhl;l> nghJkf;fspd;mq;fPfhuj;ij vspjpy;ngw... Mdhy;> nghJ kf;fSf;F (fpwp];jtu;fSf;F) jhd; ed;F mwpKfkhdtu; vd;gjhYk;> jhd; mtu;fspd; Jd;gr; R+oypy; tho;tjhYk; (1:9) Nahthd;jdJnrhe;jg; ngaupy;,NaR mUspaj; jpUntspg;ghl;il vOjj; jaq;ftpy;iy.

2. milahs nkhopfs; ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaj; jd;ikfspy; kpf Kf;fpakhdit. ,it gy tifg;gLk;. flTs; mspf;Fk; fhl;rpahf ,e;E}y;fs; vOjg;gLtjhy; (jhdp8:1> 15; jpnt 1:11; 12:1> 3;15:1; 18:1; 20:1)> ,ay;Gf;Fkhwhdmilahsq;fisAk; fz;ljhf vOjg;gLk;. (v.fh) 1 VNdhf;F 86:1-4y; xU fhl;rp. tpz;kPd;fs; thdj;jpypUe;J tpOe;J vUJfshf khwp> gpwF ,it ahid> xl;lfk; fOijfisg; ngw;nwLf;fpd;wd. jhdpNay;fz;lfhl;rpfspy;xd;W: flypypUe;Jehd;Fngupa tpyq;Ffs; ntsptu> mtw;wpy; xd;wpd; cUtk; fOfpd; ,wFfisf; nfhz;lJ. Mdhy; rpq;fj;ijg; Nghy; ,Ue;jJ (7:4). ,ijg;Nghd;W tpfhuj; Njhw;wKila ntl;Lf;fpsp gw;wp jpUntspg;ghL tUzpf;fpwJ (mjp 9).

mLj;J> ed;ikf;Fk; jPikf;Fk; elf;Fk; ,Wjpg; Nghupy; ,e;j gpugQ;rk; KOtJk; <LgLtjhf ntspg;gLj;j tpz;zfk;> tpz;kPd;fs;> fjputd;> fly;> jiu (jpnt 12-13) vd;W gpugQ;rg; gFjpfs; ahTk; ,g;Nghuhl;lj;jpy; gq;nfLf;Fk;. ,j;Jld;> gpugQ;rj;jpy; (Cbsmbs) fhzg;gLk; epyeLf;fk;> ,b Kof;fk;> kpd;dy; (16:18)> VO ,bfs; (10:4)> neUg;G Gif> fe;jfk; (9:17) Nghd;w moptpd; milahsq;fs; gw;wpAk; vOjp> flTs; jdJ ePjpj;jPu;g;Gf;F ,tw;iwAk; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu; vd;W ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fs; vOJtJ tof;fk;.

tpyq;fpd; milahsq;fis kpfTk; jhuhskhf ,e;E}y;fs; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd (jhdp 7). ,tw;wpy; ed;ikiaf; Fwpf;Fk; tpyq;Ffs; (rpq;fk;> Ml;Lf;Fl;b> ehd;F capu;fs;)> jPikiaf; Fwpf;Fk; tpyq;Ffs; (muf;fg;ghk;G> ghk;G 12:9; fly; tpyq;F 13:1; jiu tpyq;F13:11) vd;WjpUntspg;ghLepiwaNtjUfpwJ. NkYk;> Ml;fisAk; ntspg;ghl;L milahsq;fshfj; je;J caupaf; fUj;ij cs;slf;fpj; jUfpd;wd> ,j;jifa E}y;fs;. (c-k;) thdpy; Njhd;wpa ngz; (12:1)> kzkfs; (21:9)> ,tu;fSf;F vjpu;khwhf> ePu;Nky; ngz;> tpiykfs; (17:1).

NkYk;> NrhNjhk;> vfpg;J (jpnt 11:9)> ghgpNyhd; (18:2) vd;w efuq;fis jPikf;Fk; Gjpa vUrNyNk (mjp 19) ed;ikf;Fk; milahs nkhopfshfj; jUfpwhu; jpUntspg;ghl;L Mrpupau;. ,e;j ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fs; ,t;thW ekJ ,aw;iff;F khwhd cUtfq;fs; gw;wp vOJtijg; gbf;Fk; NghJ ekf;Fg; GupahkYk;> ,J ntWk; fijnad;Wk; Njhd;wyhk;. Mdhy; ,g;gb vOJtjd; fhuzj;ij ehk; Gupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

(1) Mo;e;j ,iwntspg;ghl;ilg; Guhzf; fijfs; Kiwapy; tUzpg;gJ goq;fhy kuG (jpnt 12-Mk; mjpfhuk;)

(2) ed;ikf;Fk; jPikf;Fk; elf;Fk; ,Wjpg; Nghuhl;lkhf flTspd;kf;fSf;Fk; NguuR Nghd;w flTspd; vjpupf;Fk; elf;Fk; Nghuhl;lj;ijf; fz;L> ,j;jifa Nghuhl;lj;jpy; flTNs ntw;wp nfhs;thu;. mtuJNghUf;F> mtu; jPikiaj; jz;bf;f vj;jifaf; fUtpiaAk; gad;gLj;Jthu;. mJ ekJ kdpj - cyf - eilKiwf;F xt;thj milahsq;fshff; $l ,Uf;fyhk;. Vnddpy; ,J flTspd;Nghu;.

(3) ,tw;iwg; Gupe;J nfhs;s kpf Kf;fpakhdJ - gbg;Nghupd; kdepiy. ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fisf; fij Nghd;Nwh my;yJ tuyhW Nghd;Nwh gbf;ff;$lhJ. khwhf ,e;E}y; ahUf;F Neubahf vOjg;gl;lNjh> cNuhikg; Nguurpd;neUf;fbapy; jq;fs; ek;gpf;ifia tho;tjpy; Nrhjidfis ahu; mDgtpj;jhu;fNsh> mtu;fspd;kdepiyapy; ehk; gbf;f Ntz;Lk;.

3. ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaj;jpy; thd J}ju;fs; ngUk; gq;Nfw;fpwhu;fs;.
thd J}ju;fs; flTspd; gzpahsu;fs; (jpnt 19:10; 22:9); flTs;jhk; ntspg;gLj;j tpUk;gpar; nra;jpfisj; jdJ J}ju;fs; %ykhf ntspg;gLj;Jfpwhu;> vd;gJ kl;Lky;y (1:1; 22:6)> jdJJ}ju; %ykhfTk;jdJePjpj; jPu;g;igf; flTs;mspf;fpwhu; (16:1) vd;gJA+ju;fs;vz;zk;> mg;gbNa,se;jpUr;rigAk; ek;gpte;jJ. jpUntspg;ghl;by;- ntspg;ghl;ilmspg;gtNu thdJ}ju;jhd; (1:1; 22:6) ,j;Jld;> Mapuf;fzf;fhd thdJ}ju;fs; (5:11) kpf;Nfy; vd;w Fwpg;gpl;l thdJ}ju; (12:7) vd;W gyu; Njhd;Wfpd;wdu;. mWgJ Kiw thdJ}ju; vd;w thu;j;ij ,e;E}ypy; tUfpwJ. ,tu;fs; flTSf;F ,izahsu;fs; my;yu; (19:10; 22:9). khwhf> kdpjUf;Fk; flTSf;F kpilapy; cs;s ,izg;ghsu;fs; (njhE} 22:11; ePjp13:3-5) ,d;ndhUNfhzKk; cz;L. fpwp];jtu;fisAk; thdJ}ju;fshf Nahthd;XupU,lq;fspy; miof;fpwhu; (1:20; 2:1> 8). ,J> cyfj;jpUr;rigapd; tpz;zf milahsq;fis Fwpg;gjhf rpyu; vLj;Jf;nfhs;tu; (R.o. obunce) ,Ug;gpDk;> mq;Fs;s fpwp];jtu;fs; flTspd; gzpahsu;fshf tho;e;j mtu;fspd;kdepiyia ,J ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ.

4. ntspg;ghl;L E}y;fs; vz;fis milahs nkhopfshf mjpfk; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd. jhdpNay; Gj;jfj;jpy; 4 ngupa tpyq;Ffs; (7:4)> - gj;J nfhk;Gfs;> (7:7) ,uz;L nfhk;Gfs; (8:3)> 3 1/2 Mz;Lfs; (7:25> 12:7)> 70 Mz;Lfs; (9:1). 1260 ehs;fs;> 1330 ehs;fs; (12:12) vd;W gy vz;fs; tUfpd;wd. mijg; Nghd;W> jpUntspg;ghLk; ,uz;L (11:13) %d;W (1:4-5)> 3 1/2 (12:14)> ehd;F 7:1; 21:13)> 1260 ehs;fs; (12:6) 1>44>000 (14:1)> Mapuk; Mz;Lfs; (20:2)> 666 (13:18) vd;W gy vz;fis cgNahfg;gLj;JfpwJ. Fwpg;ghf VO vd;w vz;Zf;F kpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; (52 Kiw tUfpwJ) nfhLg;gijf; fhz;fpNwhk;.

E}ypd;mikg;gpNyNa VOvd;gjw;FNahthd;Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspf;fpwhu;: VO Kj;jpiufs; (6:1-8:1)> VO vf;fhsq;fs; (8:6-11:18)> jPu;g;gpd; thdJ}ju;fs; VO (14:6-20)> VO thijfs; (mjp 15)> VO fpz;zq;fs; (16:1-21)> ,Wjpf; fhl;rpfs; VO (19:11-22:7); ,j;Jld; VO NgWfs;> VO thf;FWjpfisAk; Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;.

nghJthf> %d;Wvd;gJflTSf;Fupavz;zhfTk;> ehd;F gilg;igf; Fwpg;gjhfTk; jpUntspg;ghl;by; tUfpwJ. %d;iwAk; (flTs;) ehd;ifAk; (gilg;G) Nru;j;jhy; VO tUfpwJ. mg;gbnadpy; VO vd;gJ Nahthdpd; vz;zg;gb KOikiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ. kw;w vz;fSf;fhd tpsf;fk; me;je;jg; gFjpapy; mspf;fg;gLk;.

,e;j tpsf;fk; jpUntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpak; rKjhaj;jpy ve;jr; R+o;epiyapy; vOfpwJ> vj;jifaj; jd;ikfisf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ> ,Wjpapy; ve;j Nehf;fj;ij nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;gijj; njspTg;gLj;JfpwJ. Nkw;fz;l fUj;ij NkYk; Gupe;J nfhs;s mjpy; cs;s nra;jpia ehk; ,q;Nf xt;nthd;whf tpsf;FNthk;.

R+o;epiy: Jd;gj;jpy; thOk; kdpju;fs;
xU Fwpg;gpl;l rpWghd;ikr; rKjhak; ngUghd;ikr; rKjhaj;jpdhNyh my;yJ murpdhNyh Jd;gj;Jf;F cs;shFk; NghJ mr;rpWghd;ikr; rKjhaj;Jf;F MWjyhfTk; ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpahfTk; flTspd; kPl;Gr; nra;jp jpUntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpa Kiwapy;tUtJcz;L. ,j;jifa,yf;fpaA+j tuyhw;wpy;fp.K. 200 Mk; Mz;Lf;Fg; gpwFjhd;mjpfk; Njhd;wpaJ. mtw;wpy; xU rpy vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfis ,q;F fhz;Nghk;.

(m) 1 VNdhf;F
fp.K. 165 - y;vOjg;gl;l ,e;j E}y;fp.K. 167 - 165 ,y;epytpa kf;fNgau; Gul;rpapd; gpd;dzpia vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ. flTspd; kf;fshd(njhE}6:1-4) cz;ikahdA+ju;fs; Ntw;wpdkf;fshd fpNuf;fu;fsplk; Jd;Gw;W> mtu;fsJ A+j rkaj;ij epiwthf tho;tjpy; NrhjidAk; NtjidAk; mile;jhu;. ,j;jifa Ntjidahdr; R+o;epiyapy; kf;fSf;F MWjy; jUk; nghUl;L 1 VNdhf;F vd;W jpUntspg;ghl;L E}y; vOe;jJ. flTs; jPikia mopg;ghu; vd;w mbg;gil nra;jpia ,J mspj;jJ. td;KiwAk; mlf;FKiwAk; ,t;Tyfpy; Ml;rp nra;jhYk; xU ehs; tUk; - mg;NghJ vy;yhk; mopf;fg;gl;L flTspd; kPl;G cUthFk; vd;W nrhd;dJ.

(M) jhdpNay;
7-12 jhdpNay; Mfkk; 12 mjpfhuq;fisf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ,J ,UngUk; gpupTfisf; nfhz;lJ. ghgpNyhdpa> ghurPf tuyhw;Wg; gpd;dzpapy; (fp.K. 560-350) jhdpNaYk; mtuJ Njhou;fSk; vg;gb flTSf;Fg; gzpe;J ele;J vjpupfs; Nky; ntw;wp nfhz;ldu; vd;gJKjy;ghfk; (mjp 1-6). mjp 7-12 ,uz;lhk; ghfk;. ,J fhl;rp ,yf;fpa tifapy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,Jjhd; gioa Vw;ghl;bd;jpUkiw E}y;fspy; flTshy; Vtg;gl;l gFjpahf tUk; ntspg;ghL E}y;.

fp.K. 165-y; vOjg;gl;l ,g;gFjp ghgpNyhdpah njhlq;fp> mijj; njhlu;e;J te;j ghurPf> fpNuf;f fhyj;jpy; A+ju;fs; mDgtpj;jj; Jd;gq;fspd; gpd;dzpapy; flTs; mspf;Fk; kPl;Gr; nra;jpia jhdpNay; fz;l fhl;rpfshf tUzpf;fpwJ. Ntw;wpdj;Jf; nfhLq;Nfhyd; rhj;jhdpd; fUtpahf tUzpf;fg;gl;L (7:3; 11:31)> Fwpg;gpl;lf; fhyk; tiu (12:7) flTspd; kf;fSf;Fj; Jd;gk; NeUk; (10:16; 11:24; 12:1)> Mdhy; ,Wjpapy; jPatd;Njhy;tpAw;W(12:7) Gdpju;fs;> Qhdpfs;vOr;rpAWtu; (12:3) vd;w ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpiaj; jUfpwJ. A+ju;fspd; ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaj;jpy; ,Jjhd; kpfr; rpwe;jJk; Nkd;ik kpf;fJkhFk;. flTspd;,Wjpj; jPu;g;gpy; jPikmopf;fg;gl;Led;ikntw;wpailAk; vd;WJd;Gw;wmf;fhyj;Jkf;fSf;F ,e;j ntspg;ghl;L,yf;fpak;> gwit ehfk;> tpfhukhd tpyq;Ffs;> ehd;F nfhk;GfSila nts;shL> gytPdKs;s nrk;nkwp - vd;W ,ay;Gf;F khwhd gy cUtq;fshy; mzpnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.

(,) 4 v];uh
jpUKiw E}y;fspy; Nru;f;fg;glhj kw;nwhU E}y; 4 v];uh. ,J vgpNua nkhopapy; fp.gp. 90-120 f;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; A+j Mrpupau; xUtuhy; vOjg;gl;l E}yhFk;. fp.gp. 70-y; cNuhikj; jsgjp ill;lrhy; vUrNyk; mopf;fg;gl;l tyhw;Wg; gpd;dzpia ikakhf itj;J vOjg;gl;lJjhd; ehd;fhk; v];uh vd;w E}y;.

7 fhl;rpfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;L vOjg;gl;l ,e;E}ypy; fgpupNay; vd;w thdJ}ju; Njhd;Wfpwhu;. vUrNyk; rPNahdhfTk; cNuhik fOfhfTk; tUzpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. Myaj;ijAk; efiuAk; ,oe;J jtpf;Fk; kf;fSf;F mj;Jd;gj;jpw;Ff; fhuzkhd cNuhikg; Nguuir> rhj;jhdhf cUtfpj;J> flTs; tPo;j;Jthu;; mtuJ ePjpj; jPu;g;G jPikapd; Nky; te;Nj jPUk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpia ,e;E}y; ,ay;Gf;F khwhd milahs cUtfq;fs; nfhz;L jUfpd;wJ. ,e;E}ypd; mikg;Gk; R+o;epiyAk; fpwp];jt topghl;L E}yhd Nahthdpd; jpUntspg;ghl;bw;F kpfTk; xj;jpUf;fpwJ. ,uz;Lk; xNu fhyf;fl;lj;jpy;xNu murpd;(cNuhik) gpd;dzpapy; vOe;jd vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

(<) rpgpy;ypd; thf;Ffs;
fp.K. 2Mk; E}w;whz;L Kjy; fp.gp. 7 Mk; E}w;whz;L tiu A+j tuyhw;wpy; ,];uNay;kf;fs;re;jpj;j murpay;r%fg; Nghuhl;lq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; "rpgpy;ypd;thf;Ffs;” vd;w ngaupy; gy E}y;fs; cUthapd. fp.gp. 80-y; vOjg;gl;l "rpgpy;ypd; thf;F”fspd; ehd;fhtJ Gj;jfk; Nahthd; vOjpa jpUntspg;ghl;Lf;F> xj;jpUg;gJld;> ePNuh gw;wp mtu; vOjpatw;wpw;F ,jpYs;s ghuk;gupak; %ykhfTk; mike;jpUf;f tha;g;Gfs; cs;sd.

cNuhikg; Nguurpd; xOf;fkpd; ikiaAk; ru;thjpfhuj;ijAk; fz;bf;Fk; ,e;j ehd;fhtJ E}y; ePNuh gw;wpa xU Guhzj;ijAk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. ePNuh fp.gp. 68-y; ,we;j NghJ kf;fspy; Fog;gKk; efupy; Gul;rpAk; Njhd;Wk; vd;W gae;j muR FLk;gj;jhu; mtdJ ,wg;G nra;jpia clNd ntspg;gLj;jtpy;iy. ,j;jUzj;jpy;> ePNuh gw;wpa Guhzk; xd;W kf;fspy; cUthdJ. ePNuh cz;ikapy; ,wf;ftpy;iy. khwhf fpof;F ehLfSf;F Xbr;nrd;W ghu;j;jpa kf;fSld; tho;fpwhd;. ghu;j;jpag; Nghu; tPuu;fis xd;W jpul;b> mg;gilf;Fj; jiytuhf> kPz;Lk; cNuhikf;F te;J jd;idg; Gwf;fzpj;jtu;fis (Nero redux) Kwpabg;ghd; vd;W ek;gpdu;. mjhtJ> ,we;jJ Nghd;w epiyapy;Xbtpl;l ePNuh kPz;Lk; tUthd;. ,ij Mjhukhff; nfhz;L NahthDk; ePNuh gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLfpwhu; vd;W ek;g topAz;L (jpnt 13:3; 13:18; 17:11).

Nkw;fz;l A+j ntspg;ghl;L E}y;fis ehk; MuhAk; NghJ ntspg;ghl;L E}y; vOe;j R+o;epiy vg;nghOJk; Ntw;W kdpju;fsplkpUe;J flTspd; kf;fSf;F vOe;j Jd;g Jauq;fs; jhd; vd;gJ GydhFk;.

4. jpUr;rigapd; rthy;fs;

NtjidAk; NtjfyhgidAk; jpUntspg;ghl;L E}ypy; ,ioNahbr; nry;tij ehk; njspthff; fhzyhk;. "cq;fs; rNfhjuDk; ,NaRNthL ,ize;j epiyapy; cq;fs; NtjidapYk; Ml;rpAupikapYk; kdTWjpapYk; gq;F nfhs;ngtDkhd Nahthd;” vd;W Muk;gpf;Fk; Mrpupau; (1:9) jpUr;rig tho;T vd;gJ rthy;fSk; Nghuhl;lq;fSk; epiwe;jd vd;gij Rl;bf; fhl;LfpwJ. 2-3 mjpfhuq;fspy;MrpahtpYs;s7 jpUr;rigfSf;FvOJk; fbjq;fspy; mtu;fs; jhq;fptUk; Jd;gq;fs; gw;wpNa Mrpupau; mjpfk; Ngrp tUfpwhu; (2:3; 9> 13> 19).

rhd;Wgfu;e;jjw;fhd nfhiy nra;ag;gl;ltu;fspd; nrgj;ij Nehf;Fk; NghJ (6:9)> ,e;E}y; vOjg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; fpwp];jttho;T vd;gJ Nghuhl;lKk; rthy;fSk; epiwe;jjhfNt ,Ue;jd vd;gJ njspthfpwJ. ,r;rthy;fis cUthf;fr; rhj;jhdpd; fUtpfshf rKjhaj;jpy; gyu; nray;gl;ldu;.

1. A+ju;fNshL Nghuhl;lk;
fp.gp. Kjy;E}w;whz;bd;A+ju;fs;md;iwa,se;jpUr;rigf;F Kjy; rthyhf ,Ue;jdu;. kpf ePz;l> cWjpahdr; rka kuGk;> ,d xw;WikAk;> ehl;Lg; gw;Wk; nfhz;l A+ju;fs; fpwp];jtu;fis jho;j;jg;gl;l kf;fshf xJf;fp tpl;ldu;. Nkw;F Mrpah gFjpapy; tho;e;j A+ju;fs; fpwp];jtu;fNshL mbf;fb Nkhjpdu;. "jhq;fs; A+ju;fs; vdr; nrhy;ypf; nfhs;Nthu; cd;idg; gopj;Jg; NgRtJk; vdf;Fj; njupAk; mtu;fs;A+ju;fs;my;yu;. rhj;jhDila$l;lNk” (2:9) vd;w trdq;fs; md;iwa A+jUf;Fk; fpwp];jtUf;FkpilNa epytpa gifikia ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ. rpkpu;dh vd;w jpUr;rigapy; mq;Fs;s cNuhik mjpfhupfSld;Nru;e;Jnfhz;LA+ju;fs;fpwp];jtu;fSf;Fvjpuhd Fog;gj;ij cUthf;fpdhu;. fpwp];jt A+ju;fs; A+j nrgf; $l;lj;jpypUe;JntspNaw;wg;gl;ldu;. gpynjy;gpah jpUr;rigapd; epiyAk; ,Njr; R+o;epiyia vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ. "rhj;jhdpd; $l;lj;ijr; Nru;e;jtu;fs; A+ju;fs;” vd;W mq;Fs;s A+ju;fs; fz;bf;fg;gLfpd;wdu; (3:9). A+j Raeyj;ijAk; gpbthjf; Fzj;ijAk; fz;bf;Fk; ,e;j Mrpupau; A+j ek;gpf;iff;Fvjpuhf"jhtPJFLk;gj;jhupd;jpwTNfhiymtd; Njhspd;Nky;itg;Ngd;” (3:7) ,NaRitf; fhl;Lfpwhu; (fhz;. vrh 22:22).

"vUrNyk;| vd;wthu;j;ijiag; gad;gLj;JtjpYk;A+jUld; ,se;jpUr;rigf;F ,Ue;jg; Nghuhl;lk; ntspg;gLfpwJ. vUrNyk; "NrhNjhk;” vdTk; "vfpg;J” vdTk; cUtfkhf mioj;J A+jkugpdupd; %lek;gpf;ifiaf; fz;bf;Fk; Mrpupau;> me;j vUrNykpd; cz;ik kuG fpwp];jtupy;> ,se;jpUr;rigapy; epyTtjhf Ntjidfspy; ntw;wp ngw;W tho;tpd; E}ypy; ,lk; ngw;wtu;fspd; FbapUg;ghf Gjpa vUrNyk; (21:9-27) ,Uf;Fk; vd;Wk; tptupf;fpwhu;.

A+ju;fs; cNuhikg; Nguurpy; rkar; Rje;jpuk; ngw;wpUe;jdu;. ,J murpay; ssjpahf nry;thf;F ngwTk; cjtpaJ. ,jdhy; rpWghd;ikr; r%fkhf ,Ue;j fpwp];jtu;fs; jho;j;jg;gl;L xLf;fg;gl;lhu;fs;.

2. gpw ,d kf;fSld; Nghuhl;lk;
Kjy; ,uz;L E}w;whz;Lfspy; cNuhik mjpfhupfs; fpwp];jtu;fisg; gytpj fhuzq;fshy; ntWj;jdu;. mjpy; Kf;fpakhdJ: fpwp];jtu;fs; jq;fs; rka ek;gpf;ifapd; fhuzkhf kw;wtu;fsplkpUe;J jq;fisNa jdpikg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lij mtu;fshy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;s ,aytpy;iy. ,NaRtpd;"cliy” cl;nfhs;fpwhu;fs; - mJTk; kiwthf vd;W gpw ,dj;jhu; fUjp fpwp];jtu;fis ntWj;jdu;. nghJkf;fspilNa epytpa ,j;jifa ntWg;igg; gad;gLj;jpjhd; cNuhikia vupg;gjw;F fpwp];jtu;fis gypahlhf khw;wj; Jzpe;jhu; ePNuh kd;dd; (jhrpJ];) - (fhz;: jpg 19). A+juhYk; gpw ,dj;jhuhYk; ntWj;J xJf;fg;gl;l fpwp];j tu;fs; - ,g;gbg;gl;l Jau; epiyia jpUntspg;ghl;L Mrpupau; vg;gb ntspg;gLj;Jfpwhu;? ,U ,lq;fspy; fhz;fpNwhk;.

epf;nfhyha; vd;w FOvNgR jpUr;rigapYk; (2:6)> ngu;fhKk; jpUr;rigapYk; (2:15) kpfTk; jPtpukhfr; nray;gl;ldu;. ,tu;fisg; Nghd;W gpyahikAk; ,rNgiyAk; gpd;gw;Wk; NtW ,U FOf;fs; ngu;fhKk; kw;Wk; jpaj;jpuh (2:14; 2:20) Nghd;w rigfspy; nray;gl;ldu;. ,e;j %d;W FOf;fSk; xNu tpjf; nfhs;ifiaj;jhd; gpd;gw;wpdu;: i) rpiyfSf;Fg; gilf;fg;gl;l khkprj;ij cz;gJ; ii) tpgrhuk; nra;tJ - mjhtJ> A+j kuGg;gb> rpiytopghl;ilf; Fwpg;gJ> nghUshjhu> r%f trjpf;fhf fpwp];jtu;fs;,j;jifar; nray;fisr; nra;aj; J}z;Lk; - gpw ,d kf;fspd;Nghf;FNghuhl;lj;Jf;FupaJ. mijg;Nghd;W> jpaj;jpuhtpy; njhopy; rq;fq;fspy; cWg;gpduhapUf;Fk; fpwp];jtu;fSk; jq;fs; fpwp];JttpRthrj;jpw;FMgj;JVw;gLk; R+o;epiyiar; re;jpj;jdu;.

3. nghUshjhug; Nghuhl;lk;
jpUntspg;ghl;LjpUr;rig nghUshjhuj;jpYk;Nghuhl;lj;ijr; re;jpf;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ. me;jf; fhy ,se;jpUr;rigapd; cWg;gpdu;fs; gyu; Vio vspatu;fs;. ViofshapUe;jjhy; - trjpiag; ngUf;fpf; nfhs;Sk; Mir gpwf;fpwJ. me;j Kaw;rpapy; fpwp];jt ek;gpf;if kOq;fbf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,j;jifag; Nghf;if ,ytNjhf;fpaj; jpUr;rigapy; fz;l Nahthd; mtu;fisf; fz;bf;fpwhu; (3:17). jq;fs; ek;gpf;iff;F ghjpg;G Vw;glhtz;zk; tWikapypUe;J tpLgl mtu;fs; cz;ikapy; Nghuhl Ntz;bapUe;jJ.

4. cNuhikg; NguuR: kpfg; ngupa rthy;
Nkw;fz;l r%fr; R+oy;fs; ,se;jpUr;rigf;Fg; gpur;rpidfshfTk;> NtjidfshfTk; ,Ue;jhYk;> mJ re;jpj;j kpfg;ngupa rthy;cNuhikg; NguuRjhd;. "cNuhikg; NguuR” vd;W Fwpg;gpLk; NghJ - murpay; R+o;epiykl;Lky;y; mjd; r%f rkar; R+o;epiyfSk; murpaNyhL xd;wpize;J nrd;W> fpwp];Jt tho;Tf;Fr; rthy;fshf mike;jd. ,ijj; njspthfg; Gupe;J nfhs;s cNuhikaUf;Fk; fpwp];jtUf;Fk; ,ilNa epytpa cwitj; njupe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

fpwp];J gpwg;gjw;F Kd;Ng cNuhikg; NguuR nghypTld; ,Ue;jJ. gy rpw;wuru;fs; mjd; muir Vw;W fg;gk; fl;b te;jdu;. gyUk; cNuhikg; NguuirAk;> cNuhik efiuAk;> "Njtijahf” tzq;fpdu;. fp.K. 165-y;rpkpj;dh vd;w,lj;jpy;"Nuhk;Njtijf;F Nfhtpy;fl;lg;gl;L topghL ele;jJ. A+ypA]; rPru; ,wg;gpw;Fg; gpwF "NguuR topghL” - Nguuru; topghlhf”(fp.K. 29-y;) khwpaJ. mtUf;Ff; Nfhtpy;fSk; vOe;jd. Nguuru; Nghk;Ng fp.K. 63-y; ghy];jPdj;ij Kw;Wifapl;L> Rkhu; 80 Mz;Lfs; cNuhkhdpa muRf;Ff; fPo; nfhz;L te;jhd;. ,f;fhyj;ij tuyhw;W Mrpupau;fs; "Nuhk; mikjp” (Qax - RbmaNa) vd;Wmioj;jdu;. ,NaRtpd;gpwg;G> Nghjid> kuzk; - ahTk; ,f;fhyj;jpy;jhd; ele;jd. jpUr;rig cUthdJ. Rkhu; fp.gp. 50 tiu jpUr;rigAlDk; RKfkhd cwT ,Ue;jJ (cNuh 13:1).

fp.gp. 50-y; fpwp];jtk; gut Muk;gpj;jJ. ,J cNuhikau;fspilNa gaj;ij cUthf;f> mtu;fs; mopf;f Kad;wdu;. fp.gp. 60 thf;fpy;ehLjOtpa> jpl;lkpl;l Ntj fyhgid elj;jg;gl;lJ. ,jw;F mtu;fs; gad;gLj;jpaf; fUtp: Nguuru; topghL.

1. fypFy;yh (fp.gp. 37-41) - jw;Gfo;r;rpg;gpj;jd;.
2. ePNuh (fp.gp 54-68) - fp.gp. 64 cNuhikia vupj;J - fpwp];jtu;fs; Nky; gop Rkj;jpdhd;. nfhba kpUfq;fisf; nfhz;L tijj;jhd;.
3. njhkprpad; (fp.gp. 81-96): jw;Gfo;r;rpAk;> nfhiy ntwpAk; nfhz;ltd;. "ek; Mz;ltUk; flTSkhd njhkprpad;” vd;W rhj;jhdpd;kWTUtkhfNtnray;gl;lhd;(19:10; 22:9). “ehq;fSk; kdpju;fs; jhd;” vd;W NgJUTk;> gTYk; $wp kdpj topghl;il vjpu;f;fpd;wdu; (fhz;. jpg 10 : 26; 14:15).

vt;tT J}uk; fpwp];jtu;fis cNuhikg; NguuR vjpu;j;jnjd;why; - cNuhikiag; ghgpNyhd; vd;W tUzpj;J “tpiykfs;” vd;Wk; cyfpYs;s mUtUg;ghd ahtw;Wf;Fk; jha; vd;Wk; $Wfpwhu; (jpnt 17:5-6); mj;Jld; "nfhba tpyq;F” (13:1-3) vd;Wk; rhj;jhdpd;fUtpvd;Wk; tUzpf;fpwhu;.

5. ,WjpAfg; Nghu; ,Wjpg;Nghu;
;,WjpAfj;ij "v];fNjhd;” vd;WfpNuf;f nkhopapy;$WtJ tof;fk;. ,WjpAfk; gw;wpa ,iwapaiy> ~v];fj;Njhy[p> vd;W Mq;fpyj;jpy; tptpypa mwpQu;fs; miog;gJ cz;L. ,jd; fUj;Njhl;lkhdJ ,WjpAfg;Nghu;> mjdhy; ,t;Tyfpd; muR jfu;f;fg;gly;> flTspd;ePjpj; jPu;g;G tUjy;> ,Wjpapy;flTspd;muR vd;w Gjpa cyfk; Njhd;Wjy; - vd;w tifapy; mikAk; ,];uNayu; Ntw;W ehl;ltupd; mbikj;jdj;jpy; jq;fspd; rka tho;it Kiwahf tho ,ayhjr; R+o;epiyfspy; ,j;jifa vz;zq;fs; cUthapd. ghgpNyhdpa mbikj;jd gaj;jpy; ,];uNayu; tho;e;jNghJ> ",Njh> Mz;ltu; G+Tyif ntWikahf;fpg; ghoilar; nra;J> mjd;epyg;gug;ig cUFiyar; nra;J> mjpy; tho;Nthiur; rpjwbg;ghu;” vd;W vrhah $wpaij epidT $WNthk; (24:1). ,e;j mjpfhuk; KOtJNk ,WjpAfg; Nghupy; flTspd; ePjpj; jPu;g;G gw;wp vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ.

ghgpNyhd; mbikj;jd tho;tpd; R+oypy;> "vq;fs; kPl;gupd; ngau;> gilfspd;Mz;ltu;”vd;WtUzpj;J(vrh 47:4)> ghgpNyhd; Nky; mspf;ftpUf;Fk; ePjpj; jPu;g;Gg;gw;wp vrhah $WtJk; ,Nj gpd;dzpapy;jhd;. ,];uNayu; ghgpNyhdpypUe;J tpLjiy mspf;Fk; flTs;~,WjpAfg; Nghiu| elj;Jthu; vd;W 3-Mk; vrhah vOJtijAk; fz;Nzhf;FNthk; (mjp 63). ",Njh> Xu; muru; Neu;ikAld;murhs;thu;” vd;WflTspd;~gilfspd;Mz;ltuhf| epd;W(32:1) ,WjpAfg; Nghiu elj;Jthu; vd;WtUzpf;fpwhu;. ,Nj vz;zj;ij> NahNty; (2-3)> kPf;fh (5) nrf;fupah (9-14) Nghd;w ,iwthf;fpdu;fSk; ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wdu; (fhz;. kyh 4:1-6; nrg; 1:1-18).

1. ,iwthf;Ffspd; Foe;ij
flTs; jPikia mopj;J ed;ikia epiyehl;Lthu; vd;W nghJthf vy;yh ,iwthf;FE}y;fSk; ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wd. A+j tuyhw;wpy; fp.K. 2-Mk; E}w;whz;NlhL gy ,iwthf;F E}y;fs; Ko;?J tpl> mtw;wpd;Foe;ijahf jpUntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpakhd 3 Mk; vrhah> jhdpNay; E}y; Nghd;w E}y;fs; Njhd;wpd vd;W mwpQu;fs; fUJtu;. mg;gbnadpy;> ,iwthf;Ffspd; ,lj;ij jpUntspg;ghl;L E}y; vLj;Jf; nfhz;lJ vd;W fUj KbahJ. khwhf> ,iwthf;Ffs;ntspg;gLj;jpaf; fUj;Jf;fisntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fs; tpupthfTk; njspthfTk; je;jd. mtw;wpy;> ,e;j ~,WjpAfg; Nghu;| gw;wpaJ kpf Kf;fpakhdxd;W.

ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaj; jd;ikfisf; nfhz;L flTs; (,NaR) elj;Jk; ,WjpAfg; Nghu; gw;wpa Gjpa Vw;ghl;L E}y;fs; gy Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. Mz;ltu; ,NaRtpd; ,uz;lhk; tUifahf ,jidg; Gdpj gTy; tUzpj;jhu; (1 njr 1:10; 4:13-18> gpyp 3:20- 21; cNuh 8:18-25). ew;nra;jpfSk; jpUj;J}ju; gzpAk; $l ,j;jifa ,WjpAfg; Nghu; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. ew;nra;jpfspNy khw;F 13 KOtJk; ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpa Kiwapy; ,WjpAfg; Nghu; gw;wpAk; ,jpy;njspTw vOJfpwhu; khw;F(fhz;. kj; 24; Y}f; 17:20-37; 21:5- 36; Nahth 5:25-29 jpg 17:30-31).

2. fpwp];jtj; jpUntspg;ghL
fpwp];jt ntspg;ghl;L E}yhd Nahthdpd; jpUntspg;ghL jPikia(rhj;jhid) vjpu;j;JflTs;elj;jtpUf;Fk;,WjpAfg; Nghu; gw;wp njhlf;fk; Kjy; KbT tiu kpfTk; tpupthfNt vOJfpwJ. "ehd;jpUlidg; Nghy; tUNtd;” (3:3)> ",Njh> ehd;fjT mUfpy; epd;Wjl;bf; nfhz;bUf;fpNwd;” (3:20) vd;W,WjpAfg; NghUf;fhf tutpUf;Fk; ,NaRit ,jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jp> me;j Nghu; vj;jd;ikAilajhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij VO Kj;jpiufs; (6-7)> kw;Wk; VO vf;fhsq;fs; (8-11) gw;wpaf; fhl;rpfspy; tptupf;fpwhu;. ,d;Dk; Fwpg;ghf> "Vohk; thdJ}ju; vf;fhsk; Kof;fg;NghFk; fhyj;jpy;> flTs; jk; gzpahsu;fshd ,iwthf;fpdu;fSf;F mwptpj;jgbNa mtuJ kiwthd jpl;lk; epiwNtWk;” vd;W mwptpf;fpwhu; (10:7).

,e;j ,WjpAfg; Nghu; kpf;NfYf;Fk; muf;fg;ghk;Gf;Fk; elf;Fk; Nghuhf cUthfpwJ (12:7-12)> flTs; jPikia vg;gb mopf;fj; njhlq;fptpl;lhu; vd;gijr; Rl;bf; fhl;ba Nahthd;> ,iwtdpd; kfdhd ,NaR vd;w Ml;Lf;Fl;b 1>44>000 NgUld; NghUf;F Maj;jkhf epw;Fk; fhl;rpia tUzpf;fpwhu; (14:1). ,ijj; njhlu;e;J "flTSf;F mQ;Rq;fs;; mtiug; Nghw;wpg; GfOq;fs;. Vnddpy; mtu; jPu;g;gspf;Fk; Neuk; te;Jtpl;lJ” vd;W mwptpj;J (14:7)> kz;Zyfpd;Nky; flTspd;rpdk; vg;gb tUfpd;wJ vd;gij VO thdJ}ju; flTspd; rPw;wk; vd;Dk; rpdk; vg;gb tUfpd;wJ vd;gij “VO thdJ}ju; flTspd; rPw;wk; vd;Dk; fpz;zj;ij Cw;wpdhu;fs;” vd;W cUtfkhf vOJfpwhu; (16:1). me;j ,WjpAfg; Nghupd; njhlf;fk; ghgpNyhdpd; (cNuhik) moptpy; Muk;gpf;fpwJ. Vnddpy;,e;j cyfpy;rhj;jhdpd;kWcUtkhf cNuhikg; NguuR md;iwa ehspy; ,Ue;jJ (fhz;. mjp 17-18).

"ePjpNahL jPu;g;gspj;Jg; Nghu;njhLg;Nghupd; ~flTspd; thf;F| vd;gtu; (19:11-13) jdJgilfNshLjPikapd;cUthdtpyq;Ffs; (Nguuru;fs;)> Nghyp ,iwthf;fpdu;fs; ahtiuAk; nfhd;W (19:20- 21)> ,Wjpapy; rhj;jhidAk; mtdJ ,Wjpg; gpbg;ghd rhT> ghjhsj;ijAk; mopj;J> neUg;G Vupapy; vwpe;J tpl;lhu; (20:10>14) vd;W Nahthd; tUzpj;J> flTspd; ,WjpAfg; Nghupd;ntw;wpahd Kbit tptupf;fpwhu;.

3. ed;ikf;Fk; jPikf;Fk; Nghuhl;lk;
A+j> gpw ,d kf;fsplkp Ue;Jk;> cNuhikg; Nguuruplkp Ue;Jk; fpwp];jtu;fs; mDgtpf;Fk; Jd;gg; Nghuhl;lk; VNjh xU Fwpg;gpl;l tuyhw;W epfo;T kl;Lky;y> ,J ed;ikf;Fk; jPikf;Fk; elf;Fk; Afg; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; milahsNk my;yJ gpujpgypg;Ng vd;W Nahthd; fUjpdhu;. ,g;gbj;jhd; ,];uNay;kf;fSk; fUjpdu; (njhE}3:15). ,g;gbf; fUJtJ> NkNy ehk; Fwpg;gpl;lJ Nghd;W> ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fspd; jd;ikAkhFk; (fhz;. jhdp7-12).

,Njg; gpd;dzpapy;jhd;NahthDk; jdJE}ypy;vOjp> ,J VNjh fpwp];jtUf;Fk; cNuhik muRf;Fk; elf;Fk; Nghuhl;lky;y> khwhf flTSf;Fk; rhj;jhDf;Fk; elf;Fk; Nghuhl;lk; vd;W (12:7-12) vOjpdhu;. Mdhy; ,j;Jld; epy;yhky;> ,r;R+oypy;> jPikapd; cUthd rhj;jhid mopf;ff; flTs; Jzpe;J tpl;lhu;. ,J ,WjpAfg; Nghuhf mikfpwJ. ,e;j ,WjpAfg; Nghupy; jPik mwNt mopf;fg;gl;L> flTs; Gjpa tpz;zfj;ijAk; Gjpa kz;zfj;ijAk; (jpnt 21-22) Vw;gLj;Jthu; vd;W ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fspd; jd;ikf;F Vw;g vOJfpwhu;.

Jd;GWk; kf;fSf;F MWjYk; ek;gpf;ifAk; mspf;fNt flTs; jk; rhu;ghf ,Wjpg; Nghiu elj;Jfpwhu; vd;W Nahthd; vOJfpwhu;. mJ ~tpiutpy; elf;Fk;| vd;W mtu; $WtJ (1:3; 3:3; 19; 16:15; 22:6) fhyj;jpd; fzpg;G my;y; khwhf> ,WjpAfg; Nghu; njhlq;fptpl;lJ vd;w ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpia mspf;fNt (fhz;. kj; 8:29; khw; 13:33; 1 nfhup 4:5).

6. Mrpupau;
"Mrpahtpy; cs;s VO jpUr;rigfSf;Fk; Nahthd; vOJtJ” vd;WjdJngaiuf;Fwpg;gpLk;jpUntspg;ghl;LMrpupau; (1:4-5) jd;id xU ,iwthf;fpduhfTk;> flTspd; gzpahsuhfTk; (1:1-2)> mNj rkaj;jpy;> ,NaRTf;Fr; rhd;W gfu;e;jjhy; gj;K jPTf;F ehL flj;jg;gl;l Ntjrhl;rpahfTk; (1:9) tUzpf;fpwhu;. ,tu; ve;j Nahthd; vd;W mwpe;J nfhs;tjpy; gytpj fUj;Jf;fs; cs;sd.

1) njhlf;f fhyg; ghuk;gupak;
jpUntspg;ghl;bd;Mrpupau; jpUj;J}ju; Nahthd;vd;WvNgrpy; tho;e;j [];bd; khu;l;lu; (fp.gp. 135) vd;gtu;jhd; Kjd; Kjypy; rhd;Wgfu;e;jhu; (DbalbgE} with $ryaPhb 81:15). ,tiuj; njhlu;e;J Mup[d;> ,uNdA]; (fp.gp. 180)> mnyf;rhe;jpupahtpd; fpsnke;J> nju;j;Jy;ypad; Nghd;Nwhu; ahtUk; ,Nj fUj;ij ntspapl;ldu;. Mdhy; ,tu;fspy; Nahthd; ew;nra;jpf;Fk; jpUntspg;ghl;bw;Fk; jpUj;J}ju; Nahthd; kl;LNk Mrpupau; vd;W ,uNdA]; kl;LNk $wpdhu;. ,f;fUj;ijj;jhd; jpUr;rigapy; rkPgfhyk; tiu vy;yhUk; Vw;W te;jdu;. Fwpg;ghf ngUk;ghyhd fj;Njhypf;f mwpQu;fs; ,f;fUj;Jf;F MjuT je;jdu;.

,jw;F mtu;fs; jUk; fhuzq;fs;

1. njhlf;f fhyg; ghuk;gupak; ,t;tsT cWjpahf ,Uf;fpwnjd;why; mjpy; cz;ik ,y;yhky; ,Uf;f KbahJ.

2. flTspd; rPw;wj;ijg; gw;wp kpfTk; njspthf mspf;Fk; jpUntspg;ghL (mjp 16) jpUj;J}juhd Nahthdpd; kdepiyf;F xj;jpUf;fpwJ (khw; 3:17) ,biag; Nghd;wtu;.

3. jpUntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpa Kiwg;gb jdJ KOg;ngaiu ntspg;gLj;jhky;> ntWk; Nahthd; vd;W kl;Lk; ,q;Nf Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;.

4. ehd;fhk; nrk;nkwp gw;wp ,UE}y;fSk; NgRfpd;wd (21 Kiw jpnt1 Kiw Nahthd;1:29> 36); "thf;F” gw;wp,UE}y;fSk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd(jpnt19:13; Nahth 1:1> 14); "tho;TjUk; thu;j;ij” (jpnt7:17; 21:6> 22:1; Nahth 4:14; 6:35; 7:37-38)> Nfhtpy;,y;yhj R+o;epiy (jpnt 21:22; Nahth 2:19; 4:20-26) Nghd;witAk; ,UE}y;fspYk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

Mdhy; Nkw;fz;l cjhuzq;fisxt;nthd;whf Muha;e;J ghu;j;NjhNkahdhy;,UE}y;fSk; xNu MrpupauplkpUe;J(jpUj;J}ju; Nahthd;) te;jpUf;f KbAk; vd;W cWjpapl;Lf; $w ,ayhJ.

2) jpUj;J}ju; my;yu;
fp.gp. 3Mk; E}w;whz;by; vfpg;jpy; tho;e;j jpnahUErpA]; vd;gtu; mnyf;rhe;jpupah efupd; MauhapUe;jhu;. mtu; Nahthd; ew;nra;jpiaAk; jpUntspg;ghl;ilAk; ed;F Muha;e;J tpl;L> ,UE}y;fSk; xNu MrpupauplkpUe;J te;jpUf;f KbahJ vd;w khw;Wf; fUj;ijf; $wpdhu;. mg;Ngh];jypf;f Mrpupau; gw;wp ntspg;Gwr; rhd;Wfs; (jpUr;rigapd; je;ijau;fs; gyu;) kpfTk; cWjpahf ,Ue;jhYk;> ,d;iwatptpypamwpQu;fs;ngUk;ghNyhu; jPnahUErpA]; fUj;ij Mjupj;J jpUntspg;ghl;il ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpia vOjpa Nahthd; vOjpapUf;f KbahJ vd;W $Wfpd;wdu;.

,jw;F mtu;fs; $Wk; fhuzq;fs; KOf;f KOf;f mfr;rhd;wpd;mbg;gilapy;mike;jd:

1. jpUntspg;ghl;bd; Mrpupau; jd;id ntWk; Nahthd; vd;Wk; (1:1)> flTspd; gzpahsu; vd;Wk; (1:1)> jdJ thrfu;fspd; rNfhjuu; vd;Wk; (1:9)> xU ,iwthf;fpdu; vd;Wk; (22:8) Fwpg;gpLfpwhNunahopa Xuplj;jpy; $l jd;idXu; jpUj;J}ju; vd;W Fwpg;gpltpy;iy.

2. tuyhw;W ,NaRit mwpe;jtuhf jpUntspg;ghl;by; Xuplj;jpy; $l Mrpupau; Fwpg;gpltpy;iy.

3. Nahthd; fp.gp. 64-70y; Ntjrhl;rpahf ,we;jhu; vd;w kuG ,Uf;f> mtu; vg;gb vNgR gFjpapy; fp.gp. 90y; ,Ue;jpUf;f KbAk;? Mdhy; ,jw;F khw;Wf; fUj;Jk; cs;sJ (f;\eckwith> 366-93).

4. nkhopeil> ,iwapay; fUj;jpy; NtWghL Nghd;witNa kpf Kf;fpaf; fhuzq;fshf Rl;bf; fhl;lg;gl;ld.

ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpahdJ njspthd> rupahd ,yf;fzj;Jld;> ey;y fpNuf;f nkhopapy; vOjpapUf;f> jpUntspg;ghL xU ghkud; NgRk; fpNuf;fj;jpy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. "ek;G” (To believe)vd;w thu;j;ij 98 Kiw ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpapy; tUk;NghJ> jpUntspg;ghl;by; ,e;j thu;j;ij xUKiw $l tUtjpy;iy.

NkYk;> ~Ml;Lf;Fl;b| vd;w thu;j;ijia ,U E}y;fSk; Fwpg;gpl;lhYk; ntt;NtWfpNuf;f thu;j;ijfiscgNahfpf;fpd;wd (jpnt. mu;dpNahd;; 4-Mk; ew;nra;jp: mk;Ndh];). gpugQ;rk; (Cosmos) vd;w thu;j;ij jpUntspg;ghl;by; %d;W Kiw tUfpwJ. gilg;gpd; nghJj;jd;ikg; nghUspy;jhd; vy;yhNk tUfpwJ. Mdhy; ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jp ,t;thu;j;ijia ,UnghUs; jd;ikapy; (dualistic character) gad;gLj;JfpwJ; cjhuzkhf md;G x ntWg;G; tho;T x rhT; ghJfhg;gJ x ,og;gJ.

,Jkl;Lky;yhky;> jpUntspg;ghL mjpfk; gad;gLj;Jk;> "vy;yhk; ty;ytu;” (Pantokrator)> "murUf;nfy;yhk; muru;>” "mupaiz”> "cWjpAld; epiyj;jpUj;jy;”> "Jd;gk;” - Nghd;w thu;j;ijfs; ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpapy; mwNt fhzg;gLtjpy;iy. ,j;Jld;> ,UE}y;fSk; nghJthf "Ml;Lf;Fl;b” vd;w thu;j;ijiag; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd - vd;W $wp ,U E}y;fSf;Fk; xw;Wikiaf; fhz;gu;. Mdhy; Ml;Lf;Fl;b (arnion) vd;gJ jpUntspg;ghl;by;fpwp];JTf;Fmspf;fg;gLk;kpfKf;fpakhdngau;. Mdhy; ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpapy; ,J Kf;fpakhd ngau; ,y;iy. NkYk;> ~cyfpd; ghtq;fisg; Nghf;Fk; nrk;nkwp| (Nahth 1:29> 36) vd;w fUj;jpy; jd;idNa gypahf;Fk; Ml;bd; milahse;jhd; ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpapy; tUfpwJ. khwhf> jpUntspg;ghl;by; XupU ,lj;jpy; ~gh];fh Ml;Lf;Fl;bia| mupdpNahd; (nrk;kwp) ntspg;gLj;jpdhYk; (5:9-10; 15:3-4)> kdpjiu kPl;Fk; mur Njhw;we;jhd;Kjd;ikahdKiwapy; fhzg;gLfpwJ(fhz;17:14; 5:6; 1:17-18). jd;idNaifaspf;Fk;Ml;Lf;Fl;biatpl NghuhLk; Ml;Lf;Fl;bahfj;jhd; fpwp];Jit jpUntspg;ghL fhl;LfpwJ (5:6; 14:4; 17:14).

,Njg;Nghd;W> ~thf;F| (NyhNfh];) vd;w thu;j;ijia ,UE}y;fSk; gad;gLj;Jk; tpjKk;> ntspg;gLj;Jk; nghUSk; xd;whf ,y;iy (fhz;. Nahth 1:1> 14; jpnt 19:13; flTspd; thf;F|). NkYk; Mz;ltupd; ,uz;lhk; tUif ,t;TyfpNyNa Muk;gpj;Jtpl;lJ vd;W ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jp $WfpwJ; khwhf> cyfpd; ,Wjpapy; cyifj; jPu;g;gpLk; mtuJ ,uz;lhk; tUif ,Uf;Fnkd jpUntspg;ghL $WfpwJ. Nkw;$wpa fhuzq;fshy; jpUj;J}juhdNahthd;jpUntspg;ghl;bd;Neub Mrpupau; vd;gij Vw;Wf; nfhs;s ,ayhJ.

3) fhl;rpahsu; Nahthd;
2> 3 Nahthd;jpUKfq;fis vOjpa Mrpupau; jd;id%g;gu; vd;WFwpg;gpLfpwhu; (1 Nahth 1:2). ,tu;jhd;jpUntspg;ghl;ilAk; vOjpdhu; vd;W rpyu; fUJfpd;wdu;. NtW rpyu;> ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpAk; jpUntspg;ghLk; jpUj;J}juhdNahthd;vOjtpy;iy; khwhf> ,U E}y;fSk; Xu; Mrpupaf; FOtpdhy; cUthf;fg;gl;ld vd;W (Harnack, lohmeyer) fUJfpd;wdu;. Mdhy; ,tu;fspd; fUj;J Gw> mfr; rhd;Wfspd;mbg;gilapy; Vw;fj; jFe;jJ my;y. mNj Nghd;W jpUntspg;ghL cUthf jpUKOf;F Nahthd; gpd;dzpahf ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhu; vd;wfUj;Jk;(tptpypag; Nguhrpupia J.M. Ford) Vw;ff; $bajy;y.

ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpf;Fk; jpUntspg;ghl;Lf;Fk; mjpf xw;Wik ,Ug;gijAk;> Muk;g jpUr;rigapd; Gwr; rhd;iwAk; KOtJkhf xJf;fptpl KbahJ. mNj rkak; ,uz;ilAk; jpUj;J}ju; NahthNd jk; ifg;gl vOjpdhu; vd;gij tpl> Nahthdplk; gapw;rp ngw;w mtuJrPlu; - mtu; ngaUk; Nahthd;- jpUntspg;ghl;il vOjpdhu; vd;gJjhd; ,d;W ngUk;ghYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLk; fUj;J. njhlf;f fhyj; jpUr;rigapd; Jd;g Jauq;fspy; gq;Nfw;W (1:9)> jpUr;rig tho;tpd;Nkk;ghl;Lf;fhf,iwtdhy;miof;fg;gl;L (1:1) Xu; ,iwthf;fpduhf (1:1; 22:10)> jhd; fz;l fhl;rpfis gj;K jPtpypUe;J (1:9) ,e;j Nahthd; vOjpdhu;. ,Ug;gpDk; ehd;fhk; ew;nra;jpapd; ,iwapay; kw;Wk; mikg;gpd; rhaiy xj;J ,e;E}iy mtu; vOjp> ,e;E}Yf;Fk; jpUj;J}ju; Nahthd;jhd; %y Mrpupau; vd;W njspT gLj;Jfpwhu;.

7. vq;fpUe;J? vg;NghJ?
gj;K jPT "cq;fs; rNfhjud;... Nahthd; vd;Dk; ehd; flTspd; thf;if mwptpj;J ,NaRTf;F rhd;W gfu;e;jjhy; gj;K jPTf;F tu Neu;e;jJ” vd;WNahthNd$Wk;rhl;rpaj;ij Nehf;Fk;NghJjdJ ew;nra;jpg; gzpapidKd;dpl;L mtu; ngw;w jz;lidjhd;,e;j gj;K vd;w jPTf;F mtu; te;jJ (1:9). mq;fpUe;J jhd; fz;l fhl;rpfis VO jpUr;rigfSf;Fk; xU fbjkhf vOjj; njhlq;fpdhu;.

rpwpa Mrpag; gFjpapy; V[pad; flypy; cs;s jPTjhd; gj;K. ,J kpNyj;jpypUe;J (Miletus) njd; Nkw;fpy; 60fp.kP. J}uj;jpy; cs;sJ. ,d;iwa JUf;fp ehl;bw;Fr; Nru;e;j xU rpwpa jPT. nkhj;jk; 24 rJu fp.kP. gug;gsTnfhz;lJ. fp.gp. Kjy;E}w;whz;by; ,q;Fkf;fs;mjpfk; thohj xUfuLKulhdxUjPT. gpspdpvd;w cNuhik tuyhw;W Mrpupaupd; $w;Wg;gb murpay; Fw;wthspfSf;F mspf;Fk; jz;lidahf cNuhik mjpfhupfs; mf;fhyj;jpy; gj;K jPTf;F mtu;fis ehL flj;jpdu;. fpwp];jtg; Nghjfuhd Nahthd; vNgrpy; Nghjpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhu;. Vw;fdNtGdpj mg;nghy;NyhTk; (jpg 18:24) Gdpj gTYk; ,q;Nf jPtpug; gzpnra;J jpUr;rigia Vw;gLj;jpapUe;jdu; (1 nfhup 15:32; jpg 19:8). mjw;Fg; gy Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpwF> vOe;Js;smurpay;> r%f neUf;fbapd;kj;jpapy; Nahthd;,q;Nf vNgrpy; gzpGupe;j NghJ Nguuru; topghl;Lf;F mtuJ gzp ngUe;njhy;iyahfTk; jilahfTk; ,Ue;jJ. ,tuJ ew;nra;jpg;gzp r%fj;jpy; fyfj;ijAk; muRf;F vjpuhd R+o;epiyAk; Vw;gLj;jpaij mwpe;j cNuhik mjpfhupfs; mtiuf; ifJ nra;J gj;K jPtpw;F ehL flj;jpdu;. ,J vg;NghJ ele;jJ?

E}y; vOe;jf; fhyk;
gj;K jPtpw;F te;jTld; rpwpa Mrpah jpUr;rigapy; epyTk; R+o;epiyf;F Vw;W flTspd; nra;jpia jpUntspg;ghlhf Nahthd; vOj Muk;gpj;jhu;. ve;jf; fhyj;jpy; mtu; vOjpdhu; vd;gjpy; mwpQu;fspilNa xj;jf; fUj;J ,y;iy. ,e;E}ypy; fhzg;gLk; Ntjfyhgidr; R+oiyNehf;Fk; NghJ,Jfp.gp. 54-68f;Fk; ,ilg;gl;lf; fhyj;jpy; ePNuhtpd;nfhLq;Nfhy;Ml;rpapd;NghJvOjg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W rpyu; $Wfpd;wdu; (J.~.$.RbbiNsbn) . ,jw;F mtu;fs; nfhLf;Fk; fhuzk; jpnt 13:18 "me;j vz;Xu; Misf; Fwpf;Fk;; mJ 666” vd;w tupfs; ePNuhitj;jhd; Fwpf;fpwJ (,e;j vz; gw;wpa tpupthdtpsf;fj;ij gpwFjUfpNwd;). mJkl;Lkpy;yhky; jpnt 17:10-11y; fhzg;gLk;> ",g;NghJ xUtu; Ml;rp nra;fpwhu;” vd;w tupfs; ePNuhitj;jhd; Fwpf;fpwJ vd;wdu;. Mdhy; ,U fhuzq;fSk; rupay;y. vz; tpLfijapd; mbg;gilapy; 666iaf; fz;lhy; mJ ePNuhitf; Fwpf;Fnkd;whYk; mJNt Kbthd tpilay;y (fhz;. Gdpj ,uNdA];> ~dv. oaer. 5- 28-30). NkYk; jpnt 17:10-11y; fhzg;gLk; Fwpg;Gfs; mg;nghOJ Ml;rpapypUf;Fk; ePNuhitf; Fwpf;fpwJvd;gJtuyhw;Wf;Fvjpuhf cs;sJ. vg;gb? cNuhikg; Nguurpd;VO muru;fisf; Fwpg;gpl;L> " ,jpy; Itu; tPo;r;rpAw;wdu;; ,g;nghOJ xUtu; Ml;rp nra;fpwhu;” vd;W vOJfpwhu; Nahthd; (17:9-10). tpo;r;rpAw;w Itiu vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> Kjy; Nguuruhd mF];J]; (fp.K. 31 fp.gp. 14)> jpNgupA];(14-37)> fhypFyh (37-41)> ,ndhjpA];(41-54)> ePNuh (54- 68) vd;W fzf;fpl Ntz;Lk;. mg;gbnadpy; tPo;r;rpAw;w Itupy; ePNuhTk; xUtu;. mtu; vg;gbNahthdpd;fhyj;jpy;tho;e;jpUg;ghu;? NkYk; jpnt 2:8-11y; rpkpu;dh jpUr;rig gw;wpg; NgRfpwJ. "Nrhjpg;gjw;fhf myif cd;idr; Nru;e;Njhupy; rpyiu rpiwapy; js;stpUf;fpwJ” vd;w Ntjfyhgidapd; R+oiy vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ (jpnt 2:10). Mdhy; Gdpj Nghypfhu;g; gpypg;gpaUf;F vOjpa klypd; mbg;gilapy; (11:3) fz;lhy; Gdpj gTy; cNuhikapy; ,wg;gjw;F Kd; (fp.gp. 64-65) rpkpu;dhtpy; jpUr;rig cUthftpy;iyvd;WNjhd;WfpwJ. fp.gp. 68f;Fg; gpwNf mq;Nf ew;nra;jp Nghjpf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; fp.gp. 68y; ePNuh kd;dd; ,we;J tpl;lhd;. vdNt jpUntspg;ghL ePNuh kd;dd; fhyj;jpy; (fpgp 54-68) vOjpapUf;f Ntz;Lnkd;w fUj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhs;s ,ayhJ.

njhkPrpad; fhyk;
(fpgp 81-96) njhkPrpad; fhyj;jpy;jhd; jpUntspg;ghl;il Nahthd; vOjpdhu; vd;W ,uNdA]; (fp.gp. 269) Kjy; Kjypy; rhd;W gfu;e;jhu; (~dv.oare5:30). ,jidNa vRNrgpARk;> mnyf;rhe;jpup ahtpd; fpske;Jk; $wpdu;. fp.gp. 304-y; tpf;NlhupD]; vd;gtu; ,e;E}y; KOtjw;Fk; yj;jPd; nkhopapy; vOjpa tpsf;fTiuapYk; ,f;fUj;ijNa $Wfpwhu;. ,f;fUj;ij ,d;iwa tptpypa Muha;r;rpahsu;fs; Vwf;Fiwa vy;yhUNk Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;wdu;.

,jw;F Kf;fpa fhuzk; njhkPrpad; fhyj;J Ml;rp epiy. ePNuhtpd;fhyk;tiu Nahthd;jdJE}iyvOjtpy;iynad;gJ cWjp. mtDf;fLj;J te;j nt];ghrpaidj; jtpu (69-79) kw;w Nguuru;fs;ahtUk; (fhy;gh> Xj;Njh> tpj;jypA];> ill;l];) FWfpa fhyNk Ml;rp nra;jdu;. mtu;fs; jq;fs; Ml;rpiaf; fhg;ghw;wpf; nfhs;s muz;kidf; Fog;gj;jpNyNa ehl;fisf; flj;jpdu;. fpwp];jtu;fSf;FxUNtjidahf mikatpy;iy. mLj;J> gj;J Mz;Lfs; Ml;rp nra;j nt];ghrpad;> Nguuru; topghl;il mjpfk; tw;GWj;jtpy;iy. mij Mjupg;gjhfTk; fhl;bf; nfhs;sT kpy;iy. mjdhy; ePNuh fhyj;jpypUe;j Ntjfyhgidapd;jPtpuk; ,f;fhyj;jpy; ,y;iy. Mdhy; njhkPrpad; fhyj;jpy; epiyik khwptpl;lJ. fp.gp. 81-y; mupaizNawpa njhkPrpad; Kjy; Kjypy; nfhLj;jf; fl;lis: ‘jd;id kf;fs; flTshf tzq;f Ntz;Lk;| vd;gNj. jpNahfhrpA]; vd;w cNuhik tuyhw;W Mrpupau; $w;Wg;gb> "ek; Mz;ltUk;flTSkhdnjhkPrpad;fl;lisapLfpwhu;” vd;Wjhd; vy;yh cNuhikr; rl;lKk;Muk;gpf;fNtz;Lnkd;gJnjhkPrpadpd; Miz (Roman History 67:14).

jdJ tpUg;gj;jpw;F ,zq;fhjtu;fis> ePNuh nra;jJ Nghd;W> nfhLikahd Kiwapy; jz;bj;jhd; - ngUk;ghYk; nfhiy jz;lidjhd;. jhd; nghJNkilapy; Njhd;Wk; NghJ> "ekJ Mz;ltUf;F Gfo;” vd;W kf;fs; fj;j Ntz;Lk;; "Mz;ltUk; flTSkhd njhkPrpaNd” vd;W Muk;gj;jpy; tpspj;Jjhd;ahUk; ciuahw;w Ntz;Lnkd;w fl;lis ,Ue;jJ. jdJ murpay; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;Fj; jilahapUg;gtu; ahuhapUe;jhYk;mtu;fis xopj;Jf; fl;l njhkPrpad; jaq;fpajpy;iy. cjhuzkhf jdJ neUq;fpa cwtpduhd gpNstpA]; fpsnkd;]; vd;gtiu - nfhiy nra;jhd;. jdJ rNfhjudpd; kfshd njhkjpj;jpy;yhit Nghe;jpah vd;w jPTf;F ehL flj;jpdhd;. jpNahfhrpArpd; $w;Wg;gb ,e;j njhkj;jpy;yh fpwp];jtshf khwpajhy; njhkPrpaidf; flTshf tzq;f kWj;jhs;. mjdhy;Nguurd;mtisehLflj;jpdhd;. mq;Fmts; xU fpwp];jtshf ,we;jhs; vd;gJ tuyhW.

njhkPrpad; fhyj;jpy;jhd; rkaf; fhuzq;fshy; fpwp];jtu;fs;mjpfk; rpj;jputijf;Fcs;shapdu;. ,Njf; fhyj;jpy; cNuhikapy;tho;e;j Gdpj fpsnke;J,j;jifaNtjfhygidf;Fr; rhd;W gfu;fpwhu; (vTNrgpA];> jpUr;rig tuyhW 3:18). vdNt> ,j;jifa Ntjidapd; fhyj;jpy; jpUntspg;ghl;il Nahthd; vOjpdhu; vd;gjpy; Iakpy;iy. ,j;Jld;> vNgR> rhu;jp];> ,yNthjpf;Nfah Nghd;w,lq;fspy; jpUr;rig Gdpj gTypd; fhyj;jpy; cUthdJ. Nahthd; vOJk; fhyj;jpy; ,q;nfy;yhk; fpwp];Jt ek;gpf;ifapy; xUtpj ke;j epiyiaf; fhz;fpwhu;. ,j;jifa ke;j epiy clNdte;jpUf;fhJ. khwhf> njhkPrpad;Nghd;wtdpd;kpff;nfh^ukhdMl;rpapd;NghJ> mJTk; Nguuru; topghl;il kpfTk; jPtpug;gLj;jpa jUzj;jpy; Vw;gl;bUf;f topAz;L. Mjypd;njhkPrpad;Ml;rpapd;,Wjpf;fhyj;jpy;> Fwpg;ghf fp.gp. 95-y; jpUntspg;ghL vOjg;gl;bUf;fyhk; vd;gNj ,d;iwa mwpQu;fspd;nghJthdfzpg;G.

8. ,iwthf;Fk; fbjKk;
",J,NaRfpwp];JmUspajpUntspg;ghL” vd;WMuk;gpj;J Nahthd;jdJ E}iy Muk;gpf;fpwhu; (1:1). mjw;Nfw;g> ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; jd;ikfshd> ,aw;iff;F khwhd cUt milahsq;fs; (Symbolism)> flTspy; kf;fs; cWjpNahL epiyj;J epd;why; milatpUf;Fk; ntw;wpia ~,WjpAfg;Nghu;| vd;Wk; Nahthdpd;> jpUntspg;ghL ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> jhdpNay; Mfkk;> 1 VNdhf;F Nghd;w ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fs; Nghd;W> Nahthdpd;E}Yk; ntWk; ntspg;ghl;LE}y;kl;LNk vd;W ehk;KbTnra;af;$lhJ. Nahthdpd;jpUntspg;ghL> ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fSf;F mg;ghw;gl;l rpy jd;ikfisAk; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

1) ,J Xu; ,iwthf;F E}y;
gpugQ;rk;> thdtpay; Nghd;wtw;wpy; cyfpd; njhlf;f tuyhW njhlq;fp "kiwe;jpUf;Fk;” cz;ikfis nghJthf ntspg;ghl;L,yf;fpaE}y;fs;vy;yhk; (Apocalyptic Literature) $w Kaw;rpf;Fk;. Mdhy;> jw;fhy cyfpy; elf;Fk; epfo;r;rpapd; gpd;dzpapYk;> Kbtpy; elf;ftpUf;Fk; ntw;wpg; Nghupy; kl;LNk Nahthd; ftdk; nrYj;Jfpwhu;. kw;w Ey;fspy; fhz;gJ Nghy; Gidg;ngaupy; (2-k; jhdpNay;) jhd; vOjhky; Nahthd; jdJ ngaiu njspthff; $WtJld; (1:1> 4:9; 22:8)> ahUf;F ,J vOjg;gLfpwNjh mk;kf;fis jhd; ed;F mwpe;jtuhfTk; vOJfpwhu; (1:9). "Fwpf;fg;gl;l ehs;tiuapy; ,e;j nrhw;fs; kiwf;fg;gl;L Kj;jpiug;gl Ntz;Lk;” vd;w kw;w ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fs; $Wk;NghJ (jhdp 12:9) ",e;j E}ypy; cs;s ,iwthf;FfisKj;jpiuapl;Litf;fhNj” vd;WNahthd;vOjp> jhd; ntspg;gLj;jpa nra;jpia vy;yh kf;fSk; gbj;Jg;gadila Mrpf;fpwhu; (22:10).

NkYk; Nahthdpd; jpUntspg;ghl;by; flTNshL kpfTk; neUq;fpa xd;wpg;gpy; ,NaR fpwp];Jitf; fhl;Lfpwhu;. flTspd; mupaizapd; eLtpy; ,NaR vd;w Ml;Lf;Fl;b epw;gijAk; (5:6)> flTSf;fhf mtNu midj;J kf;fisAk; kPl;ltuhfTk; (5:9)> rhj;jhDf;nfjpuhf ,Wjp ntw;wpf;F midtiuAk; mioj;Jr; nry;Yk; tPuuhf (nkrpahthf) ,NaRit Nahthd; ntspg;gLj;jp (19:1 Kjy;) jhd;vOjpantspg;ghl;LE}y;fpwp];jtupd;,iwthf;F E}y; vd;Wk; ep&gpj;Js;shu;.

2) ek;gpf;if jUk; E}y;
~ehk; thOk; ,f;fhyk; nghy;yhjJ| vd;W nghJthf vy;yh A+j ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaq;fSk; jw;fhyj;ijg; gw;wpa ek;gpf;ifaw;w jd;ikiaj;jhd; ntspg;gLj;jpd. ,WjpAfg; Nghuhl;lj;ij Nehf;fpNaek;fz;fs;fhj;jpUf;fNtz;Lk;; Vnddpy; mjpy;jhd;jParf;jpvd;Dk; muf;fd;tPo;j;jg;gLthd;vd;W$wpd. Nahthd; jdJ jpUntspg;ghl;bYk; ,WjpAfg; Nghu; gw;wp kpf tpupthfNt vLj;Jiuf;fpwhu;. Mdhy;> flTs; tuyhw;wpy; nray;gLgtuhfTk;> ,e;j cyifAk; tuyhw;W epfo;TfisAk; flTs; jdJ fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUg;gtuhfTk; Nahthd; fhl;Lfpwhu;. ,NaRtpd; ,wg;gpdhy; kPl;G Kd;dNk cWjpahf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ (5:9); mtu; rpe;jpa ,uj;jj;jpdhy; rhj;jhDf;F vjpuhd ntw;wp mtu;fs; rPlu;fs; ahtUf;Fk; ,e;j cyfpNyNa fpilf;f topAz;L(12:10-11) vd;w fpwp];JNfhzj;jpy; Nahthd; ,t;Tyf tuyhw;W epfo;Tfisf; fhz;fpwhu;. "cyfpy; cq;fSf;Fj; Jd;gk; cz;L> vdpDk; JzpTld; ,Uq;fs;. ehd; cyfpd;kPJntw;wpnfhz;Ltpl;Nld;” vd;WjdJjiytu; vOjpa ,NaRtpd;thu;j;ijfis (Nahth 16:33) Nahthd;kwf;ftpy;iy.

ghgpNyhdpa mbikj;jdj;jpy; jq;fsJ r%f> rka tho;it ,of;f NeupLk; Mgj;jpy; ,Ue;j ,];uNay; kf;fSf;F> "mQ;rhNj> Vnddpy; ehd; cd;NdhL ,Uf;fpNwd;” vd;w ek;gpf;if jUk; flTspd; thu;j;ijia mwptpj;jhu; vrhah (43:5). mNj Nghd;W> Nrhjidapy; jj;jspf;Fk; Kjy; E}w;whz;L fpwp];jtu;fSf;F> "mQ;rhNj! KjYk; KbTk; ehNd!” vd;w ek;gpf;ifapd; ew;nra;jpia Nahthd; njspthf ntspg;gLj;Jfpwhu; (1:7; fhz; 2:10).

3) ,J xU fbjk;
Nahthdpd;jpUntspg;ghL xU ntspg;ghl;L E}y; kl;Lky;y> ,J Xu; ,iwthf;F E}y; vd;Wk; fz;Nlhk;. mj;Jld;> ,J xU fbjk; vd;w jd;ikapYk; A+j ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaj;jpypUe;J,J NtWgLfpwJ. "Mrpahtpy; cs;s VO rigfSf;Fk; Nahthd; vOJtJ” vd;WNahthd;njhlq;FtjpypUe;Nj ,JxUFwpg;gpl;l kf;fSf;F mDg;gg;gLk; fbjkhfj; Njhd;WfpwJ (1:4) Fwpg;ghf 1:1-3 fbjj;jpd; Kfg;GiuahfTk;> tr 4-6 fbjj;jpd; Kd;DiuahfTk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,g;gFjpapy; tUk; tho;j;J Kiw Gdpj gTy; jdJ fbjq;fspy; vOjpathWk; (cNuh> fyh) goq;fhy fbjKiwf;Fk; kpfTk; xj;jpUg;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ,e;j Kd;DiuahdJ ,NaRtpd; GfNohL KbtJ Nghy; (6 M) ,e;E}ypd; (fbjj;jpd;) ,Wjptho;j;Jk; ,NaRtpd; kfpikNahL KbfpwJ: 1:1- 22:6; 1:2- 22:8; 1:3-22:7; 1:3-22:10; 1:8-22:13. NkYk;> VO Mrpaj; jpUr;rigfSf;FNahthd;vOjpaitAk; (2-3) fbj mikg;gpNyNa cs;sd.

A+j ntspg;ghl;L E}y;fs; Nghd;W kiwj;J itf;fg;gl Ntz;ba E}yhf ,y;yhky;> ,jid kiwj;J itf;fhNj vd;w ntspg;gilahd fl;lis ngw;w Nahthd; (22:20)> xU topghl;Lr; R+oypy; thrpf;f Ntz;baf; fbjkhf ,ij vOjpapUf;fpwhu; (1:3). mjdhy;jhd;> ",ijg; gbg;NghUk; Nfl;NghUk;” vd;W gpupj;Jf; fhl;b> "Nfl;fr; nrtpAilNahu; jpUr;rigfSf;Fj; J}a Mtpahu; $Wtijf; Nfl;fl;Lk” vd;W gy Kiw typAWj;jpf; $Wtjd; gpd;dzpAk; ,JNt (2:7> 11> 17> 29; 3:6> 13>22). Gdpj gTypd; fbjq;fspy; fhz;gJ Nghd;W NahthDk; thrfu;fis tho;j;jp Muk;gpg;gJ Nghy; (1:3) ,NaR fpwp];Jtpd;ngauhy; tho;j;jp Kbj;J (22:21)> ,J xU rpwe;j fbjk; vd;W njspTgLj;Jfpwhu;. ,e;E}ypd; mikg;G Kiwiaf; fz;L (jpUr;rigfspd; Jd;gr;R+oy;> flTs; jPu;g;gpd;mwptpg;G> jPatd;mwpkfg;gLj;jg;gly;> jPad;- rhj;jhd;Nky; flTspd; jPu;g;G> ,Wjp ntw;wp) ,e;E}y; xU ehlf mikg;gpy; cs;sJ vd;Wk; rpy mwpQu;fs; tUzpg;gu; (J.f;\. f;\bwman> F. Qalmer> R. f;\rewer). Mjypd;> Nahthdpd; ,e;j E}y; ntspg;ghl;L,yf;fpaj;Jf;Fmg;ghYk;gbf;fg;glNtz;Lk;. ,d;Dk; Fwpg;ghfr; Nahthdpd; jpUntspg;ghL xU "ntspg;ghl;L ,iwthf;F E}y;” vd;W nrhd;dhy; rhyg; nghUe;Jk;.

9. jpUr;rigapd; re;jpg;Gfs;

Jd;gKk; Nghuhl;lKk; epiwe;j ,r;R+oypy; Nahthd;vd;gtu; jpUntspg;ghl;il vOjpdhu;. mjw;F ,uz;L Kf;fpaf; fhuzq;fisf; $wyhk;.

m) Jd;gq;fspy; kd cWjp
Jd;gq;fspy; Jtz;Ltplhky; kdTWjpAld; ,Uf;fj; J}z;Lfpwhu;. Jd;gq;fisf; fz;L> gae;J> Nrhjidf;F mbgzpe;J> fpwp];Jt kjpg;gPLfis Fop Njhz;bg; Gijf;Fk; gy fpwp];jtu; ,Ue;jdu; (1 jpnkh 2:2; jpnt 2:20-21). kdTWjpapy; jsu;r;rpAwhky; ,Uf;Fk; rpWghd;ikf; fpwp];jtu;fspd; Fuyhf Nahthd; nray;gLfpwhu;. Mjypd; kd cWjp Ntz;Lk; vd;W typAWj;jp (7 Kiw = 1:9; 2:2-3> 19; 3:10; 13:10; 14:12)> epiyj;J epd;why; ntw;wp epr;rak; vd;w ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpia mspf;fpwhu; (12:11). ,e;j ntw;wpf;F kdpj rf;jp kl;Lkd;W> flTNs fhuzkhap Uf;fpwhu; vd;w ,iwapay; epiyg;ghl;il typAWj;Jfpwhu; Nahthd;. ,jid,uz;L tpjj;jpy; tptupf;fpwhu;.

1) flTs;jhd; vy;yhk; ty;ytu; kdpj rf;jpf;F mg;ghw;gl;lJ vJTkpy;iy vd;W ,Wkhe;J nray;gl;l cNuhikg; NguuR jd;idNa flTshfg; ghtpj;J nray;gl;l rhj;jhdhf (muf;fg;ghk;G) cUtfpj;J tUzpf;fpd;whu;. ,jw;F vjpu;khwhf - flTis ,e;E}yhrpupau; vy;yhk; ty;ytuhf mofhfg; glk; gpbj;Jf; fhl;Lfpwhu;.

m) flTs; tpz;zfj;jpy; mupaizapy; tPw;wpUg;gjhf tUzpg;gjpy;(62 Kiw $hrbnbs)vd;wfpNuf;f thu;j;ijAk;> 47 Kiw “vy;yhk; ty;ytu;” vd;w thu;j;ijAk; gad;gLj;Jfpd;whu;. mtuJ ty;yiktpsq;FfpwJ. murpay;jd;ikAld;mupaizmiwia mtu; tptupg;gjpy;(mjp4)> "J}atu;” vd;W%d;WKiw ghLk; ehd;F capupdq;fspd;njhdpapy;(4:8)> rhj;jhdpd;mupaiziaAk;(2:13) tpQ;Rk; mjpfhuk; nfhz;ltuhf flTisf; fhl;Lfpwhu;.

M) ,Nj murpay;ghzpapy;flTspd;mjpfhuj;ij Kj;jpiufs; gw;wpa fhl;rpfspYk; (6:1-17; 8:1; 3-5; vf;fhsk; 8:2> 6-12; thijfs; (15:8) gw;wpaf; fhl;rpfspYk; tpsf;Ffpwhu;.

,) flTSf;F ,e;E}ypd; Mrpupau; nfhLf;Fk; ngau;fis Nehf;fpdhy; (ghd;l;Njh fpuhNjhu;; 1:8; 4:8; 11; 11:4> 15> 17; 15:3-4; 16:5> 7; 18:8; 19:16; 21:22> Kurios. Despotes. Alpha and Omega (15 times) Holy and Truth (6:10). mtuJ ty;yik gw;wp mtu; $Wk; fUj;J NkYk; GydhFk;.

2) jPikapd; Nky; Mjpf;fk;
gioa Vw;ghl;by; ahNt flTs; jPikapd; kPJ Mjpf;fk; nfhz;bUf;fpwhu; vd;WnjspTw vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wd(jpg 13:7 NahG 40:6> 41:26).Leviathan, the Slippery Serpent vd;Wk; goq;fhyg; Guhzq;fspy; fhz;fpNwhk;. ,ijjhd; ngfNkhj; vd;Wk; yptpaj;jhd; vd;Wk; NahG E}y; tUzpf;fpwJ. (40-41). fhz;vrh 28:17> 27:13; ,jid ahNt mopj;jhu; (jpgh 74:12-14). ,Nj njhdpapy; - flTs; jPa rhj;jhdpd; Nky; KO mjpfhuk; nfhz;Ls;shu; vd;gij kpfTk; njspTw vOJfpwhu; (12:7-12). flTspd; ntw;wpthifr; R+Lk; ty;yikia (mjp 14-20 = "Little ~aPbcalyaPse” NkYk; tptupf;fpwhu; "flTs; jPu;g;gspf;Fk; Neuk; te;Jtpl;lJ” vd;w mwptpg;gpy; njhlq;fp (14:7)> flTs;vt;thW jPikia/rhj;jhidmopf;fpwhu; vd;W gbg;gbahf tpsf;fp> ,Wjpapy;> "rhTk; ghjhsKk; neUg;G Vupapy;vwpag;gl;ld” vd;W$wp(20:14) flTspd;KOmjpfhuj;ij kl;Lky;y> rhj;jhdpd; Nky; mtUf;fpUf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ijAk; njspTg;gLj;Jfpwhu; (fhz; 17:1-18; 19:17-21).

Ntjidapd;fhyk; Kbtw;wjy;yvd;gij ,jdhy;jpUE}y; Mrpupau; kpfTk; njspthf Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpwhu; (19:17> 1 "thUq;fs; flTs; mspf;Fk; ngUk; tpUe;Jf;F te;J $Lq;fs;” - "mtu; ,Ug;Gf; Nfhy; nfhz;L mtu;fis elj;Jthu;” (19:15). VohtJ vf;fhsj; njhdpapy; Nfl;Fk; ghlypd; cl;fUj;Jk; - ,e;jf; flTs; ty;yikapy; cUthFk;. mtuJ rpdk; - mtuJ Ml;rp njspTw ntspg;gLfpwJ (11:15-18).

M) nray;ghl;by; mu;g;gzk; (fpsu;e;njOk; jpUr;rig)
Jd;gj;jpy; Jtz;Ltplhky; ,Uf;f ntWk; ek;gpf;if vd;w Cf;f kUe;ij kl;Lk; jpUntspg;ghL jutpy;iy. khwhf> mupaizapy; tPw;wpUf;Fk; Ml;Lf; Fl;bapd; nray;ghl;il xU khjpupahfTk;Cw;whfTk;je;JNtjidNtisapYk;tpopj;jpUe;J nray;gl Ntz;Lnkd;WJ}z;Lfpwhu; Nahthd;.

nghJthf mk;Ndh];> mu;dpNahd;mk;Ndh];> mu;dpNahd; mk;Ndh];> mu;dpNahd;vd;w ,U nrhw;fSk; Ml;Lf; Fl;b vd;w nghUis mspf;Fk;. ,uz;LNk ,NaRTf;Fr; rhe;Jk; NghJ mtuJ rpYit kuzj;ijNa Fwpf;fty;yJ (Nah 1:23> 36 - mk;Ndh];). jpUntspg;ghl;by; MlLf;Fl;b my;yJ nrk;kwp kpfr; rpwe;j ,lj;ij tfpf;fpwJ - mu;dpNahd; vd;w thu;j;ijiaj;jhd; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu;. ,t;thu;j;ijia Nahthd; ,uz;L nghUs;fspy; gad;gLj;Jfpwhu;.

i) ntl;lg;gl;l Ml;Lf;Fl;b
"mupaiz eLtpy; Ml;Lf;Fl;b xd;W epw;f fz;Nld;. nfhy;yg;gl;lJ Nghy; mJ fhzg;gl;lJ” (5:6) vd;W ,NaR vd;w nrk;kwpia Kjd; Kjypy; mwpKfg;gLj;Jfpwhu; Nahthd;. ,jpy; jd;idNagypahf mu;g;gzpf;Fk; ,NaRtpd;epiyntspg;gLfpwJ (fhz; 5:6> 9> 12> 6:4; 13:8). "Kj;jpiu ,lg;gl;l Vl;Lr; RUisg; gpupj;Jg; gbf;Fk; jpwd; - ,e;j Ml;Lf;Fl;bf;F te;jnjd;why;> mjw;Ff; fhuzk; mtuJ ,e;j mu;g;gz tho;T (fhz; 5:2-8). mjdhy;jhd; "Ml;Lf;Fl;b rpe;jpa ,uj;jj;jhYk; jhq;fs; gfu;e;j rhd;whYk; mtu;fs; mtid ntd;whu;fs;” vd;W NtnwhU ,lj;jpy; njspTgLj;Jfpwhu; (12:11). Vnddpy;> Ntjrhl;rpfs; "jq;fspd; njhq;fyhilfis Ml;Lf;Fl;b rpe;jpa ,uj;jj;jpy; Jitj;J ntz;ikahf;fpf;ntz;ikahf;fpf; ntz;ikahf;fpf; nfhz;ltu;fs;” (7:14). Jd;GWk; jpUr;rig jdJ rthy;fis kPl;Gf;fhf jd;idNa mopj;Jf;nfhz;lMl;Lf;Fl;biaKd;itj;Jre;jpf;fmiof;fpwhu; Nahthd;. Ml;Lf;Fl;bapd;jpUkztpoh Ml;Lf;Fl;bia kze;J nfhz;ltu; (19:17). rPNahd; kiy kPJ epd;w 1>44>000 Ngu; Ml;Lf;Fl;bNahL epd;whu;fs;vd;W tUzpf;fpwhNu Mrpupau; (14:1) me;j 1>44>000 Ngu; ahu;? ,tu;fs; ahtUk; Ml;Lf;Fl;bapdhy; tpiy nfhLj;J kPl;fg;gl;ltu;fs;. ,tu;fs; ,NaRtpd; ghijapy; Jd;g Jauq;fisr; re;jpj;Jjhd; Mf Ntz;Lk;. "vd;idg; nghWj;j tiuapy; cyfk; rpYitapy; miwag;gl;bUf;fpwJ. cyifg; nghWj;jtiuapy;ehDk;rpYitapy;miwag;gl;bUf;fpNwd;” vd;w gTypd; thu;j;ijfs; nghUj;jkhf mikfpwJ ,q;Nf (fyh 6:14; fhz;; gpyp3:10-11). mjdhy;jhd;> fpwp];jtu;fSf;F vjpu;f;fg;gLk; mwpFwpfshf (Y}f; 2:30) ,Ug;gjpy; Mr;rupag; glf;$lhJ vd;W VO jpUr;rigfSf;Fk; mwpTWj;Jfpwhu; Nahthd;. Jd;GWj;jg;gl;l epiyapy; jhNd ,Uf;Fk; Mrpupau; (1:9)> fpwp];jtu;fspd;Ntjidia ed;F czu;e;jtu; (2:13; 11:7; 12:1-6; 13-17) Jd;gKk; JauKk; rhd;W gfUk; tho;tpd; md;whl epajpfs; vd;W Vw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W J}z;Lfpwhu;.

ii) NghuhLk; Ml;Lf;Fl;b
ntl;lg;gl;l epiyapy;> ,NaR vd;w Ml;Lf;Fl;b epd;wjhf tUzpf;Fk; Mrpupau;> mNj Ntfj;jpy;> " mjw;F VOfz;fSk;> VO nfhk;GfSk; ,Ue;jjjhfTk; - mJ epd;W nfhz;bUe;jjhfTk; tUzpf;fpwhu; (5:6). mjhtJ> mstpy;yh Mw;wYk; mwpTk; nfhz;L> NghuhLk; R+oypy; Ml;Lf;Fl;b ,Ue;jJ vd;gNj ,jw;Fg; nghUs;. nfhk;G - Mw;wiy Fwpf;fpwJ (vz; 23:22; ,r 33:17; 1rhK 2:1; 1 mu 22:11; jpg 75:4). ,uz;lhtjhf ,e;j Ml;Lf;Fl;b> rpq;fj;NjhLxg;gplg;gLfpwJ

(A+j Fyj;jpd;rpq;fk; 5:5). A+j Fyj;jpd;rpq;fNk ,e;j ,NaR vd;w Ml;Lf;Fl;b> vd;W njspTg;gLj;jp> ,NaRjhd; A+ju;fs; vjpu;ghu;j;jpUe;j nkrpah vd;W Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpwhu; Mrpupau;. ,q;Nf Ml;Lf;Fl;bAk; rpq;fKk; xd;whfpd;wd.

,e;j Ml;Lf;Fl;bjhd; rhtpd; kPJk; (5:5-6) rhj;jhdpd; kPJk; (17:14) ntw;wp fz;L> "Mz;ltUf;Ff;nfy;yhk; Mz;ltuhfTk;> murUf;nfy;yhk; muruhfTk; khWfpwJ (17:14; 19:6). mikjpapd; Ml;rpia epWtpa ,tu; (7:9) tpz;zf kiykPJ epd;W (14:1)> cyifj; jPu;g;gpLk; ePjpgjpahf fhl;rpaspf;fpwhu; (14:10). ,tuJ ,j;jifa ePjpj; jPu;g;Gr; nraypdhy; jPikfs; ahTk; vupAk; neUg;gpy;Rl;nlupf;fg;gl;L (20:10)> Gjpa thdKk; Gjpa G+kpAk; cUthfpd;wd(mjp 21).

NghuhLk; ,e;j Ml;Lf;Fl;bapd; kzkfshf ,Uf;Fk; jpUr;rig midj;jpw;Fk; mbgzpe;J nry;Yk; epiyapy; ,Uf;f KbahJ. mePjpfis vjpu;j;J - ey;tho;Tf;fhf NghuhLk; jpUr; rigahf,Uf;fNtjpUntspg;ghLmiog;GtpLf;fpwJ. nrk;kwpapd; ngaiuj; jq;fs; new;wpapy; nghwpj;Jf; nfhz;l jpUr;rig (14:1; 22:3)> jPikf;F mbgzpe;J nry;gtu;fsplkpUe;J jdpj;J epw;fpd;wdu;.

"ntw;wp ngw Ntz;Lk;” vd;W jpUr;rigapy; tpLf;fg;gLk; miog;gpy; (2:7> 11> 17> 29; 3:5; 12> 21) mtu;fsJ Nghuhl;lk; ,ioNahLfpd;wJ. gytpj Nghuhl;lj;jpd;tpistpdhy;fpwp];jtu; flTspd;murpy; ,lk; ngWtu; vd;W jpUg;ghly; $WfpwJ. ,wf;Fk; tiu ek;gpf;ifNahbUf;f rpkpu;dh jpUr;rigf;Fr; nry;Yk; ,NaR (2:10) jdJ rPlu;fs; jPikia vjpu;j;Jg; Nghuhl Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;Nf - muf;fg; ghk;Gk; kpf;Nfy; thdJ}jUk; NghuhLtij cUtfkhf ntspg;gLj;Jfpwhu;.

rKjha mePjpfis vjpu;j;J> rka Kuz;ghLfisf; fise;J> jdp kdpj gytPdf; fl;bypUe;J tpLgl;l ,iwkf;fshf tho - flTspd; thu;j;ijahf cs;s ,iw kf;fs; cyfpy; vjpu;f;fg; gLk; mwpFwpahf kl;Lkd;wp> fpsu;e;njOk; jpUr;rigah fTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkd;gNj jpUntspg;ghl;Lg; Nghjid. gypgPlj;jpd;mbapy;,Ue;j nfhiynra;ag;gl;l Md;khf;fs; (6:9)> kz;Zyfpd; Mz;ltu;Kd; epd;w ,U rhl;rpfs; (11:3-4> 9) nfhbatpyq;fpd;Kd;jq;fs;capiug; gzak; itj;j tpRthrpfs; (13:15) ghgpNyhdhy; nfhiy nra;ag;gl;l ,iwthf;fpdUk; ,iw kf;fSk; - ,tu;fs; ahtUk; jPikf;F mb gzpe;J nry;Yk; nrayw;w jpUr;rigf;F milahsq;fs; my;y khwhf> ew;nra;jp kjpg;gPLfSf;fhf jq;fs; capiuAk; Jr;rkhf kjpj;J Neu;ikf;F epkpu;e;J epd;w Nghuhsp jpUr;rigapd;Nghuhsp jpUr;rigapd; Nghuhsp jpUr;rigapd; $Wfs;. mjdhy;jhd;> "Ml;Lf;Fl;bapd; ,uj;jj;jhy; kl;L kpd;wp> jhq;fs; gfu;e;j rhd;WfSk;” mtu;fs; rhj;jhidntd;whu;fs; vd;Wk;> "mtu;fs; jq;fs; capu;kPJ Mir itf;fTkpy;iy; ,wq;fTkpy;iy”vd;W Nahthd; vOJfpwhu; (12:11).

Ntjrhl;rp vd;gJ jput - vz;zg;gb - capiug; gzak; itg;gJvd;gijtpl> jdJ"jhd;” vd;wkdpj jd;ikf;FjpdKk; ,wg;gJ vd;wGjpaNehf;fj;ijj;jUfpwJ. ,Jjhd;cliy rpYitapy; miwtJ vd;gjhFk;. ,j;jifa Kaw;rpapy; ehk; Gjpa vUrNykpy; ,g;NghNj ,Uf;fpNwhk;.

10. jpUntspg;ghL: %yKk; mikg;Gk;

Nahthdpd;jpUntspg;ghL Kd;Diu (1:1-3)> KbTiu (2:16- 21) vd;w xU fl;likg;gpy; vOjg;gl;lhYk; ,e;j E}y; ve;j mikg;gpy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;W vspjpy; KbT nra;a ,ayhJ. xt;nthU tpsf;fTiuahsUk; goq;fhye;njhl;Nl xt;nthU tpjkhdmikg;igj; jUfpd;wdu;.

m) ,jw;F vd;d fhuzk;?
,e;E}y; vOjg;gl;l tpjj;jpy; gytpjf; FiwghLfis Muha;r;rpahsu;fs; fz;ldu;. Kjypy;> ,e;E}ypy; gy xj;j gFjpfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> VO jpUKfq;fs;> VO Kj;jpiufs;> VO vf;fhsq;fs;> VO fpz;zq;fs; - ,tw;wpy; xNutpjkhdfUj;Nj (flTspd;jPu;g;Ng) typAWj;jg;gLfpd;wdvd;W $wpdu;. NkYk;> Mwhk; vf;fhsj;jpy; $wg;gl;l fUj;ijNa (9:13- 21) kPz;Lk; MwhtJ fpz;zj;jpy; $wg;gLfpwJ (16:12-16). xNutpjkhf nrhw;nwhlu; jpUk;gj;jpUk;g tUfpwJ. cjhuzkhf> "kpd;dYk;> Ngupiur;rYk; ,bKof;fKk;” (4:5; 8:5; 11:9; 16:18).

NkYk; fUj;Njhl;lj;jpy; mt;tg;NghJ xU rpy jilfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> MwhtJ Kj;jpiu cilf;fg; gl;lTld; Vw;gLk; epfo;r;rpfSf;Fg; gpwF (6:17) VohtJ Kj;jpiu njhlu Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; jpBnud Gjpa ,];uNay; gw;wpa nra;jp tUfpwJ (mjp 7). mNjNghd;W> "mg;nghOJ tpz;zfj;jpy; flTspd; Nfhapy; jpwf;fg;gl;lJ” vd;w Fwpg;GfNshL (11:19) mjw;fLj;JtUk;> "thdpy;ngupaNjhu; milahsk;fz;Nld;” vd;W njhlq;Fk; 12 Mk; mjpfhuk; ,ize;Jnry;ytpy;iy. mJNghd;w Ml;Lf;Fl;bapd; jpUkztpUe;J gw;wpg; Ngrpf;nfhz;Nl te;jtu;> me;j Ml;Lf;Fl;bahd ,NaR gfu;e;j rhd;Nw ,iwthf;FfSf;F capu;%r;R vd;W $wp tpl;L (19:10)>

"gpd;du; ehd; tpz;zfk; jpwf;ff; fz;Nld;” vd;W Nahthd; vOJtJ Fog;gj;ij cUthf;FfpwJ (19:11). Vnddpy;> Ml;Lf;Fl;bapd;jpUkztpohf; fhl;rpNa tpz;zfj;jpy;jhd; elg;gjhf vOJfpwhu; (19:1-10). Kjy; yj;jPd; tpsf;fTiu vOjpa ngj;jhitr; Nru;e;j tpf;NlhupD]; (fpgp 275-300) vd;gtu;jhd; Kjd; Kjypy; ,J Nghd;wf; "FiwghLfisf;” fz;lhu;. flTs; jPikia mwNt mopf;Fk;,WjpAfg;Nghiu typAWj;jNtKjypy;nrhd;df;fUj;ij (vf;fhsf; fhl;rpfs;) kPz;Lk;16-Mk;mjpfhuj;jpy;$Wfpwhu; vd;whu;.

M) %yfhuzkhf ,Uf;fyhk;
Mdhy; Nkw;fz;l Nahthdpd;vOj;Njhtpaj;ijg; gyu; xU Fiwahff; fz;ldu;. ,JNghd;wFiwghLfSf;Ff; fhuzk;mtu; vLj;jhz;l %ykhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk; vd;Wk; fUjpdu;. 19-Mk;E}w;whz;by;tptpypaMuha;r;rpapy;%yMa;TKiw (Sburce Criticism) Njhd;wpaJ. gioa Vw;ghl;bd; Ie;jhfkq;fisg; Gupe;J nfhs;sTk;> xj;jikT ew;nra;jpfisg; Gupe;J nfhs;sTk; ,e;j Ma;TKiw mjpfk; gad;gl;lJ. jpUntspg;ghl;ilAk; ,k;Kiwapy; Ma;e;jhy; ,jpYs;s "FiwghLfs;” njspthFk; vd;WfUjpdu;. cjhuzkhf> ngha;khu; vd;wrpE}?jg; Nguhrpupau; Ma;Tg;gbjpUntspg;ghL%d;Wepiyfspy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ (M.E. f;\bismard> Rf;\ 56> 1949> 507-41). ePNuhtpd; fhyj;jpy;(fp.gp. 62-68) xUE}iyNahthd;vOjpmLj;J> njhkPrpad; fhyj;jpy; kw;nwhU E}iy NahthNd vOjpdhu;. ,Wjpapy; njhkPrpad; fhyj;jpd; filrp fl;lj;jpy; (fpgp95) NtnwhU Mrpupau; vy;yhtw;iwAk; njhFj;J> jw;NghJs;s E}iyj; je;jhu;. mjdhy;jhd; ,e;jf; Fog;gk; vd;whu;. ngha;khu; vdgtu; kw;nwhU tpsf;fj;ijj; je;jhu;. mjp 4-11 Muk;gj;jpy; xU A+j ntspg;ghl;L E}yhf ,Ue;jJ. ,J jpUKOf;F Nahthd; fhyj;jpy;> mtuJ Nghjidapd; jhf;fj;jpy; vOe;jJ. mjp 12-22k; $l fpgp 60-y; xU A+jj; jpUntspg;ghlhfj;jhd;Muk;gj;jpy; vOjg;gl;lJ. mjd;gpwF> jpUKOf;F Nahthdpd; rPlu; xUtu; fpgp 80f;Fg; gpwF me;j ,U gFjpfisAk; xd;whfj; njhFj;jhu;. mg;gb mtu; njhFf;Fk;NghJ (mjp1-3; 22:16) 20>21) Nghd;w gFjpfisr; Nru;j;jhu; vd;W$Wfpwhu;.

,) NahthNd KOikahf vOjpdhu;
Nkw;fz;l %y Ma;Tf; nfhs;iffs; Nahthdpd; ,iwapaYf;Fk; jpUntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpaj; jd;ikf;Fk; nghUe;Jtjhf ,y;iy. ,d;iwa tptpypa mwpQu;fs; ngUk; ghYk; ,f;fUj;Jf;fis Vw;gjpy;iy. ,e;E}ypd; nkhop> eil> milahsq;fs;> ,iwapay;fz;Nzhl;lk;- Mfpatw;iwMuha;e;j gymwpQu;fs; (O.Mussies> Swete> Charles) ,e;E}ypd;xUq;fpize;j jd;ikiaAk;> Nahthd; vd;w xNu Mrpupau; xNu fhyf;fl;lj;jpy; vOjpdhu; vd;gijAk; typAWj;jpf; $Wfpd;wdu;. ,Ug;gpDk;> gioa Vw;ghl;L %yq;fisAk; (c-k;. vNrf;fpNay; ,iwthf;F E}ypypUe;J 146 KiwAk;> 20 rjtPj jhdpNay; ,iwthf;fpidAk; gioa Vw;ghl;bd; kw;w E}y;fspypUe;J NkYk; gy Nkw;Nfhs;fisAk; Nahthd; ifahs;fpwhu;). fdhNda> vfpg;jpag; Guhzf; fijfisAk; (Yarnrb CblliNs> Cbmnat Myth in the bbbk br Revelatibn) Nahthd;gad;gLj;jpdhu; vd;gij kWf;f KbahJ. vdNt> Nkw;fz;l "FiwghLfs;” ,e;E}ypy; gytPdky;y> khwhf> jdJ fUj;ij typAWj;j Nahthd; ifahz;l mtuJ vOj;J eilahFk;.

<) Nahthdpd; rpwg;G eil
Nahthd; jdJ jpUntspg;ghl;L E}iy gioa Vw;ghl;L ,iwthf;F Ey;fspd; jd;iikapy; vOjpAs;shu;. vNr 25-32y; fhzg;gLtJ Nghy; jpnt 4-11y; flTspd; rPw;wk; ,];uNaYf;F vjpuhfTk; 12-22-y; jpUr;rigapd;gpw ,dvjpupahdcNuhikapd; mwpT gw;wpAk; vOJfpwhu; vd;W Fullet vd;gtu; $wpdhu;. Mdhy; jpnt 4-11 ,];uNaYf;F vjpuhf vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;s ,ayhJ. NkYk; tuyhw;Wj; njhlu; epfo;r;rpahfTk; Nahthd; ,ij vOjtpy;iy.

njhlf;ff; fhl;rpapd; Kbtpy;> "eP fhz;gtw;iw> mjhtJ> ,g;nghOJ epfo;fpd;wtw;iwAk;> ,dp epfotpUg;gtw;iwAk; vOjpait” vd;w ,NaRtpd; fl;lis tUfpwJ (1:19). Mf> Nahthd; vj;jifa fhl;rpfisf; fz;lhNuh mNj Kiwapy; vOjp itj;jhu;. ,e;jf; fhl;rpfis ehk; ,uz;lhfg; gpupj;Jf; fhzyhk;. VO jpUr;rigapy; fz;lthW jpUr;rigapd; md;iwa epiy (2-3)> ,r;R+o;epiyapy; flTspd; nra;jp (4-22)> Mf njspthdnjhU fUj;Jf; Nfhu;itNahL Nahthd; ,e;E}iy vOjpAs;shu;. ntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpak; vd;w gyifapy; Jd;GWk; kf;fSf;F flTs; jUk; ,iwthf;Fr; nra;jp vd;w Xtpaj;ij tiufpwhu; Mrpupau;. mtu; jUk; ntw;wpr; nra;jp fUj;J Kd;Ndw;wkhf njhlu;e;Jnrd;W> jpBnudgpd;Df;Fte;JjpUr;rigapd;md;iwa Nghuhl;lr; R+oiyepidTg;gLj;Jfpwhu;. ,Ug;gpDk;KOntw;wpia Nehf;fpr; nry;Yk; Kd;Ndw;wg; ghijahfNt mtuJ vOj;J eil mikfpwJ. cjhuzkhf> Kj;jpiuf; fhl;rpfs; (4-6) flTspd; ePjpj;jPu;g;ig mwpKfg;gLj;j> "vf;fhsq;fs;| (8-11) mtw;iwmwptpf;f> "fpz;zq;fs;| mtw;iw eilKiwg;gLj;Jfpd;wd (mjp 16). Mf Nahthdpd;eiliaxUnjhlu; tisakhf tUzpj;Jf; fhz;gJ nghUj;jkhFk;. ,g;gpd;dzpapy; ehk; ,e;E}ypd; mikg;igj; jUNthk;.

2) mikg;G

1. Kd;Diu (1:1-3)
2. VO jpUr;rigfSf;Ff; fbjk; (1:4-3:22)
3. VO Kj;jpiufs; (4:1-8:1)
4. VO vf;fhsq;fs; (8:2-11:19)
5. rthy;fSk; re;jpg;GfSk; (12:1-13:18)
6. NghUk;> VO thijfSk; (14-15)
7. VO fpz;zq;fs; (16)
8. jPikapd; mopT (17:1-20:15)
9. Gjpa tpz;zfKk; Gjpa kz;zfKk; (21:1-22:15)
10. KbTiu (22:16-21).

1. Kd;Diu jhd; ngw;w jpUntspg;ghl;bid xU klyhfj; jUfpwhu; Nahthd;. ,jid kf;fs; rigapy; xU topghl;Lr; R+oypy; elf;f Ntz;Lnkd;W tpUk;gpdhu;. mjdhy;jhd; ",e;j ,iwthf;Ffisg; gbg;NghUk; ,tw;iwf; Nfl;NghUk; ,e;E}ypy; vOjpAs;stw;iwf; filgpbg;NghUk; NgW ngw;Nwhu;” vd;W njhlq;Ffpwhu; Mrpupau; (1:3). ,k;khngUk; jpUntspg; ghl;bid mspj;j flTs; vg;gbg;gl;ltu; vd;Wk;> mj;jpU ntspg;ghl;bid ntspg;gLj;jpa,NaRtpd;gz;Gfs;vd;dntd;Wk;,k;Kd;Diug; gFjpapy; jUfpwhu; (1:4-20).

2. VO jpUr;rigfSf;Ff; fbjk;
Nahthd; tho;e;j gFjpahd rpwpa Mrpahtpy; VO jpUr;rigfs; ,Ue;jd. mtw;wpd; R+o;epiyfis mtu; ed;F mwpe;jtu;. mtw;wpd; rka> r%f> murpay; gpd;dzpfis mtu; mwpe;jNjhby;yhky; ew;nra;jpia Kd;dpl;L mtu;fs; mile;j Ntjidfs;> neUf;fbfs;Nghd;wtw;iwAk;mtu; ed;Fmwpe;jtu;. mjdhy;,r;rigfSf;F(vNgR> rpkpu;dh> ngu;fhk;> jpaj;jpuh> ru;ij> gpynjy;gpah> ,yNthjpf;Nfah) ,jid vOjpdhu;. mJ kl;lky;y VO vd;gJ KOikiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ. Mjypd; cyf jpUr;rig KOikf;Fk; ,jid mspg;gjhff; fUjyhk;. ,jdpy;> me;je;j jpUr;rigapd; gyj;ijAk;> gytPdj;ijAk; Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpwhu;. mtu;fsJ gyj;jpw;fhf ghuhl;LjiyAk;> gytPdj;Jf;fhf vr;rupf;ifAk;jug;gLfpwJ. ,Wjpapy;ek;gpf;ifapy; cWjpNahL epiyj;jpUf;f miog;G tpLf;fg;gLfpwJ (2:7> 10-11> 17> 23>29; 3:6> 12-13> 20-22). ,e;j miog;G thf;FWjpahff; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

3. VO Kj;jpiufs; (4:1-8:1) ,g;gFjpia %d;whfg; gpupf;fyhk;.

(m) Nguuriuf; flTshf tzq;Fk; kf;fSf;F> cNuhikg; NguurUf;Fg; gy klq;F Nkyhdtu; vd;gijf; fhl;l> mupaizapy; tPw;wpUf;Fk; flTis mwpKfg;gLj;Jfpwhu; Mrpupau;.

(M) flTshy; mDg;gg;gl;l mtuJ kfd; ,NaR fpwp];Jit Ml;Lf;Fl;bahf,uz;lhtjhfmwpKfg;gLj;Jfpwhu; Mrpupau;. mtu; jd;idNa mu;g;gzpf;Fk; Ml;Lf;Fl;b kl;Lky;y> NghuhLk; Ml;Lf;Fl;bnad (7 nfhk;Gfs;> 7 fz;fs;) mwpKfg;gLj;Jfpwhu;.

(,) ,g;gFjpapd; %d;whtJ gFjpapy;> jPikia mopj;J ntw;wp iaf; nfhzUk; flTspd; ntspg;ghL mlq;fpa VO Kj;jpiufis ,NaR ntspg;gLj;Jtjhf tUfpwJ.

,jw;fpilapy; jPik mope;J ed;ik cUthFk;NghJ vj;jifa cd;dj epiy Vw;gLk; vd;gijj; njuptpf;f Gjpa ,];uNaypd; gl;baiy 7-Mk; mjpfhuj;jpy; jUfpwhu; Nahthd;. ,tu;fs; ,NaRtpd; ghLfs;> kuzk;> capu;g;gpy; ,ize;jpUe;J> jq;fs; ew;nra;jpf;Fr; rhd;W gfu;e;jtu;fs; (7:14).

4. VO vf;fhsq;fs;
8:2-11:19 flTspd; ePjpj;jPu;g;G ,e;j "vf;fhsf; fhl;rpfs;” %yk; mwp Kfg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. jPikapd; cUthd rhj;jhDf;Fj; Jiz nry;gtu;fs; vj;jifa NtjidiaAk;> jz;lidiaAk; mDgtpg;ghu;fs; vd;W ,q;Nf tpsf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,g;gFjpapy; xU ,ilNtisahf gjpNdhuhk; mjpfhuj;jpy; ,U rhl;rpfs; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. ,t;tpU rhl;rpfs; ahu; vd;gjpy; gy fUj;Jf;fs; epytpbDk;> jpUntspg;ghl;L ,yf;fpag; gpd;dzpapy; Nehf;Fk;NghJ - ,uz;L vd;gJ Mw;wypd; Ntl;ifAk;> rhl;rpaj;jpd;cWjpg; ghl;ilAk;Fwpf;fpwJ (,r 19:15). mjd;gb Nehf;fpd;> jpUr;rig kf;fspd;cWjpahdrhl;rpatho;it,e;j ~,U rhl;rpfs;| vd;w cUtfk; czu;j;JfpwJ.

5. rthy;fSk; re;jpg;GfSk; (12:1-13:18)
,jid ,U ngUk; ghfq;fshff; fhzyhk; i) 12-Mk; mjpfhuk; E}ypd;ikag;gFjpahf tUfpwJ. ,jdpy; jpUr;rigapd; gaz tho;itAk;> mg;gaz tho;tpy; Vw;gLk; neUf;fbfSk;> Nghuhl;lKk;> mNj Neuk;> me;jg; Nghuhl;lq;fspy; epiyj;J epw;gpd; Vw;gLk; ntw;wpiaAk; ,e;j mjpfhuk; njspTld; (Guhzf;fij tbtpy;) tpsf;FfpwJ. fjputid Milahf mzpe;jpUf;Fk; ngz; vd;gts; fpwp];J vd;w nkrpahit ,t;Tyfpw;Ff; nfhz;L tu flTshy; jahupf;fg;gl;l ,];uNay; vd;w ngz;izf; Fwpf;fpwJ (12:1-6). Mdhy; ,NaR ,t;Tyfpy; gpwe;J> tho;e;J> ,we;J capu;j;j NghJ> me;j ,NaRjhd;ek;ik kPl;fte;j nkrpahntd;W Vw;Wf; nfhz;l ,];uNayu; (NgJU> Nahthd;Nghd;w rPlu;fs;> md;idkupahs;...) Gjpa ,];uNay; vd;w jpUr;rigiaf; Fwpf;fpwhu; mg;ngz;(12:13- 18). vdNt ,NaR fpwp];Jit Nehf;fpg; gazk;nra;j ,];uNaYk;> mtiuNa ikakhf itj;Jg; gazk; nra;Ak; jpUr;rigANk fjputidMilahf mzpe;jpUe;j mg;ngz;MFk;. tuyhw;Wg; gpd;dzpapy;> ,NaRTld; Neubj; njhlu;Gilajhf,g;ngz;zpy;,NaRtpd;jha;kupahitAk;fhz KbfpwJ.

jpUr;rig vd;w ,g;ngz;Zf;F Vw;gLk; tpRthrg; Nghuhl;lj;ijAk; ,t;tjpfhuj;jpy; Mrpupau; Fwpg;gpl;L> ,g;Nghuhl;lj;jpw;Ff; fhuzkhf ,Uf;Fk; jPatu;fis muf;fg; ghk;ghf tUzpf;fpwhu;. ,Ug;gpDk; jpUr;rigiaj; jPik mopf;f KbahJ vd;w ek;gpf;iff; nra;jpia mspf;fNt> Nguhl;lKk; ntw;wpAk; vd;w fUj;jpy; thd J}jju; kpf;NfYk; muf;fg;ghk;Gk; rz;ilapLtjhfTk;> mr;rz;ilapy; muf;fg;ghk;G Njhw;fbf; fg;gLtjhfTk; cUtfkhf Nahthd; Fwpg;gpLfpwhu; (12:7-12).

,g;gFjpd; ,uz;lhk; ghfj;jpy; (mjp13) jPikapd; cUthd rhj;jhdpd; gpujpepjpahf ,t;Tyfpy; flTspd; kf;fisj; Jd;GWj;Jk; cNuhikg; NguuirAk;> Nguuru;> mtuJ mYtyu;fs;- Nghd;Nwhiu tpyq;Ffshf tUzpf;fpwhu; Mrpupau;.

6. NghUk;> VO thijfSk; (14-15)
jPikia mopf;fg; Gwg;gLfpwhu; ,NaR vd;w Ml;Lf; Fl;b. ,NaRTf;Fg; gpukhzpf;fkhf ,Ug;gtu;fs; mtNuhL Nru;e;J jPikia mopg;ghu;fs;. "ehLfs; xd;W jpul;lg;gl;L” vd;W $wp (14:14) cyfpd; ,Wjpj; jPu;g;gpd;NghJ ,NaR vg;gb jz;lidj; jPu;g;gpidcWjpahf mspg;ghu; vd;w ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jp ,g;gFjpapy; fhzg;gLfpwJ.

7. fpz;zq;fs; (16)
jPikapd;NkYk;jPatu;fs;NkYk;,NaRmspf;fg; NghFk;VO (KOikahd) thijfs; vg;gbg;gl;lit vd;gjid "VO fpz;zq;fs;” vd;w gFjptpsf;FfpwJ. "flTspd;rPw;wk;” epiwe;j fpz;zj;ij VOthdJ}ju;fs;jPatu;fs;Nky;Cw;Wthu;fs;vd;W cUtfkhff; $wp flTspd; ePjpj;jPu;g;gpd; cWjpg;ghl;ilAk;> nfh^uj;ijAk; ,g;gFjp ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ. ,it ahTk; vfpg;jpypUe;J ,];uNay; kf;fis flTs; NkhNr %yk; tpLtpg;gjw;fhf mspf;fg;gl;l 10 nfhba thijfis xj;jjhff; fhl;lg;gLfpwJ (fhz; tpg. 7-10). Mz;ltu; Nfhgj;jpd; cr;repiyiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ ,g;gFjp.

Mjypd; jPatu;fis mopf;Fk; nray;ghLfs; ,q;Nf Muk;gpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. gpugQ;rk; KOtJNk Mz;ltu; mspf;Fk; thijfSf;Fcs;shf;fg;gLk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpiaMrpupau; jUfpwhu;.

8. jPikapd; mopT (17:1-10; 15)
,];uNaypd; ek;gpf;if tho;Tf;F ,ilA+whf ,Ue;jJ md;iwa ghgpNyhd;. Nahthdpd; fhyj;jpy; jpUr;rigf;F NtjidiaAk; Nghuhl;lj;ijAk; mspj;jJ cNuhikg; NguuR> Mjypd;> cNuhikg; Nguuir "ghgpNyhd;” vd;w"tpiykhJ” vd;W cUtfkhf Mrpupau; miof;fpwhu;. ,g;gFjpapy;jpUr;rigapd;vjpupfshf,Ue;jtu;vg;gbgbg;gbahf mopf;fg;gLfpwhu;fs; vd;W fhl;lg;gLfpwJ. Kjypy; ghgpNyhd; vd;w cNuhik mopf;fg;gLfpwJ. mjdhy; mjd; topghl;Lf; nfhs;iffSf;Fj; Jiz epd;wtu;fs; Gyk;Gthu;fs; vd;Wk;> mg;gbj; Jizepd;w Nghyp ,iwthf;fpdu;fSk; Njhw;fbf;fg;gL fpwhu;fs; vd;W tUzpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

,j;jifamoptpw;fhdfhuzk; ahu; vd;gJk; (19:11-15)> mjdhy; Vw;gLk; ntw;wp Kof;fKk; (19:1-19) mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. mLj;J jPikapd;nkhj;j cUthdrhj;jhd;(muf;fg;ghk;G) mopf;fg;gLtij Mrpupau; tUzpf;fpwhu; (mjp 20). ,jdhy; nghJ capu;g;Gf;F Kd; flTspd; kf;fs; mDgtpg;gJ> Kjy; capu;g;G vd;Wk; (20:5)> jPik Kw;wpYk; mopf;fg;gLtij ",uz;lhk;,wg;G” vd;Wk;(20:14> fhz;vNu 51:39> 57:7) tUzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,t;thW jPik KOtJk; cyfpypUe;J xUehs; mopf;fg;gLk; vd;w cWjpg;ghL nfhz;L ek;gpf;ifr; nra;jpapidj; Jd;GWk; jpUr;rigf;Fj; jUfpwhu; Mrpupau;. ,j;jifaepiyapy;jhd;Gjpatpz;zfKk;Gjpakz;zfKk; gpwf;Fk;. mJNt Gjpa vUrNyk; MFk;.

9. Gjpa tpz;zfKk; Gjpa kz;zfKk; (21:1-22:15)
vj;jifa jPikAk;> mjdhy; tpisAk; Jd;gk; vJTk; ,y;yhj> flTNs NfhtpyhfTk;> tpsf;fhfTk; nfhz;bUf; Fk; epiyNaGjpathdk; GjpaG+kpahFk; (fhz;vrh 65:17; 66:2). ,g;Gjpa tpz;zfKk; Gjpa kz;zfKk; "Gjpa vUrNyk;” vd;W tUzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. "Ml;Lf;Fl;b” vd;w,NaRfpwp];JTf;Fcfe;j kzkfshf ,e;jg; Gjpa vUrNyk; vd;w jpUr;rig tptupf;fg;gLfpwJ (vrh 61:10).

,g;GjpavUrNykpd;jd;ikfs;vd;dntd;WKjypy;$Wk; Mrpupau; (21:1-8)> mjd;tho;f;if epiygw;wpmLj;J$Wfpwhu;. Gjpa Myak; gw;wpa vNrf;fpNaypd; fUj;Jf;fSf;F xg;g ,g;Gjpa vUrNyik Nahthd;tUzpf;fpwhu; (vNr 40:1-47:18).

10. KbTiu (22:16-21)
rigapy;gbf;f Ntz;banjhUfbjkhf ,e;E}iyNahthd; vOJtjdhy;> mf;fbjj;jpw;F Vw;w KbTiuahf ,e;E}iy Kbf;fpwhu;.

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